Sample II


The Chronicles
of the Kings of Israel and
the Kings of the Nations

R. Abraham, son of R. Samuel Zacuto, may his soul rest in Paradise, said that knowledge of what happened to each nation at different times gives us strength and faith in the power of Blessed God, in His attention to the affairs of mortals, in reward and retribution and in the deep roots of the Torah (e.g. Generation of the Flood and similar events: earthquakes and fires; the earthquake in the days of Uzziah and Herod, and especially all that happened to the People of Israel, like the earth swallowing up Dathan and Abiram and other miracles).[2] The Holy Scripture says: ‘Remember the olden days.When the Lord Most High gave nations their inheritance, when He divided all mankind, the Lord’s portion is His people.[3] Israel needs to know about Christians if we are to argue their religion with them. Therefore I mention some people of alien faith, who otherwise would not be mentioned (for instance their ‘saints’). The Holy Scripture also mentions evildoers and heathens who deserve no mention. This was necessary to inform us of our great advantage. God forbid, do not think that, like our Holy Scripture, all is truth in what they wrote in their history books and that I quote. Know that ‘their mouths are full of lies, their right hands are deceitful’.[4] I have seen many of the events recorded in their chronicles and they are incorrect. They also lie about events of old, days of old and their miracles. They further lie in their calculation of time and years when they say that a given event took place since the Creation. There is a discrepancy of 1,439 years; in our count the year is [AM] 5264 [AD 1504], and by theirs, the year is [AM] 6703. Be that as it may, they wrote of some events retold in the BT, PT and Midrash. They supply many details about, for instance, King [Bar] Koziba, the years of Titus the Evil, the affairs of Hadrian the Oppressor (the era of the Bethar and the Ten Martyrs) and after him, Antoninus the Good[5], his era and that of his good brother as well as many other affairs. All of them rely upon Joseph Ben Gorion the Priest[6], though I do not. He tends to exaggerate and magnify while his calculations do not fit the simple meaning of Scripture. While taking this into account, [I intend] to satisfy the desires of the sons of our nation who wish to know everything they wrote, I mean, the general affairs of what happened in Jerusalem and in Palestine, Italy, Greece, Egypt, Babylonia and Turkey as well as places cited in the Scripture and populated by Israelites, such as ‘Crowned Tyre’ (in the language of Christians), only a day’s walk from Acre, quite near Sidon and Palestine. In olden days, Phoenicians lived there. Thus, many were misled to believe that Venice was Tyre.[7] Likewise, people mistake Tunis for Tarshish, which is [actually] called Tarsus. Aruch writes in the entry Tarsus, ‘boats of Tarshish’ - of Tarsus, or Malamestaras, or Turtus, close to Aleppo of our time, located to the east of Palestine.[8] As for such details about Spain, and France, and Germany, we left out all irrelevancies.

Many things admitted by the Nations could be of use, as they may have found them in the old books of the sages of Israel. For our sins in this long Exile and many persecutions, we lost [books] such as the astronomy works of the sons of Issachar, books of medicine and the wisdom of Nature compiled by [King] Solomon, pbuh, or about trees, stones, plants, the influence of stars and most ancient history.[9] The true prophets (Nathan the Prophet, Isaiah, and others in the Prophets [in the Bible]) were much engaged [in mundane science and history] and usefully so. Even in the days of Our Master Moses, pbuh, there was the Book of Lord’s Wars and Joshua [compiled] the Book of Jashar. Let us leave the exegesis in peace. The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel, which are not found among us, hold tales that bring comfort and introduce fear of God into the hearts [of listeners]. On the Day of Atonement, they have read before the High Priest from the Chronicles, Job, Ezra and Daniel. Rashi explained: [they have read] stories that attract and cheer, in order not to fall asleep. Rambam of blessed memory explained: those were stories and calculations of times past, to cheer the soul, so they would not fall asleep. That was the source for all Gentile kings to learn how to compile chronicles. Thus Ahasuerus recorded that he was saved by Mordecai. Its usefulness is obvious. Thus I compiled it together with the Book of Saints, (this is the Book of Lineage [Yohassin], which I wrote of the holy sages of Israel), in order to tell all that happened since the Creation, to [explain] the difference between us and the history books of alien nations and to separate wheat from chaff.

In the beginning, God created the universe and on the sixth day He created Adam from red dust. He was called Adam because Adama means ‘earth’, the earth is close to man’s nature; and his wife was Eve; and Adam became father of 60 sons.

Know that, according to the Scripture, to the [Greek translation of the] 70 Elders who translated the Scripture for Ptolemy, and to [the Latin translation of] Jerome, may his name perish (he is the one who translated the Scripture into Latin), that 1,756 years passed from the Creation until the Flood. Isidore says 2,242 years while Augustine, may his name perish, says 2,262 years. Thus the author relied upon Isidore’s calculations, as they say Jesus the Nazarene was born in AM 5199 and in AM 3760 by Jewish count. The discrepancy is 1,439 years. They say Cain was born in AM 15, while Abel his brother was born in AM 30; Seth was born in 130 and he started to learn the movements of heavens. Enosh [was born in] 435; Kenan, in 625. Enosh started to make images so that people would remember the Creator and it was a mistake in means. Mehalalel was born in 795; Jared, in 960 and Enoch, in 1502. He fought the evil sons of Cain. In the Book of Joshua Ben Sirah, which is added to the Holy books, it states that Enoch lived in the Garden of Eden on Earth together with Elijah. Methuselah was born in 1287. It is generally agreed that he died in the first week of the Flood. It occurred in AM 2640, by their count. The Giants [Anakim] who lived in the days of Noah and Lamech were evil. Noah fled the Giants as they scared him. The Gentiles interpreted the words of the Scripture that ‘his days will be 120 years’ as Onkelos did, that Noah was 480 when the Lord spoke to him and that the Lord gave 120 years [for people to repent].[10] If they did not repent, He would send the Flood. During these 120 years, Noah built the Ark. The length of the Ark was 300 cubits and each of their cubits was like six of ours. Maybe he learned this from the angel that brought him the measure for the Temple.[11] That was the measure of the primary cubit created by God, and it is like six of our cubits. I mean six cubits and an inch, though they said ‘little finger' instead of inch. The Ark rested atop Mount Ararat in Armenia, the highest mountain there. There Noah and his sons emerged from the Ark. That is the First Era.

From the Flood until Abraham’s birth was the Second Era, 292 years by Jewish count and 942 years by other count. Some think it was 652 years. That is according to Isidore, perish the evils’ name. According to Augustine, perish the evils’ name, it was 1,072 years. In his book he gave the reason for the change, that they added 100 years of life to each generation from Arphaxad on, and 40 years as well. There were 11 generations from Noah till Abraham. When Noah planted his vineyard, he poured some blood of lion, pig, lamb and monkey as a sign for wine drinkers. Our sages of blessed memory mentioned that he begat sons and daughters after the Flood [as well]. He had a fourth son named Yoniko [Jonitus[12]] who was very wise. After the Flood [Yoniko] began to study astronomy and taught it to the whole world, namely to the four kingdoms from East to West. He taught Nimrod how to become ruler over the sons of Ham. Noah’s kin consisted of 72 families; the sons of Japheth, 15; those of Ham, 32; and of Shem, 27 or 28. The sons of Japheth were in Europe, one third of the known world, from Portugal and Castile, to Turkey in Great Asia, where lie the lands of Israel and Babylon.[13] Lusitania is Portugal. In all those places dwelt Gomer and Magog, [their sons] are the Godosh [Goths], rulers of Castile. Javan [Ionia] is Greece and Constantinople and their land is part of Turkey in Asia. Tubal is Sepharad.[14] Further away is Cappadocia Caesarea, close to Armenia; in the middle flows the river Euphrates. There is a big city called Silkia [Cilicia?]. [The Sons of] Tiras are strong.[15] The kingdom of Thrace appears populated by Hungarians. Ashkenaz is Bohemia. [The Sons of] Riphath are Trojans, of a small kingdom in Asia.[16] They came to Italy and built the city of Venice, originally named Benicia after Aeneas Benito. Togarmah is Turliya or Turkey. Tarshish is in Asia and called the capital of Syria [Aram].[17] Elisha is the Hellespont Isles.[18] It is an island, as it is written in Ezekiel, ‘from the isles [coasts] of Elisha’.[19] Kittim is Chethema or Gifri or Kabris [Cyprus]; it has the nature of a harlot, thus they worship Noga [Venus]. Dodanim is Rhodes, and Rodanim [with ‘R’] is the same place.[20]

They say that Shem son of Noah is Melchizedek and he built Salem, which is Jerusalem.[21] Arphaxad was born two years after the Flood in 2244. Shelah was born in 2379. Eber was born in 2509. Because of his name, the Jews are called Eberim [Ivrim, Hebrews]. Nimrod was a descendant of Anakim [the Giants]; he was evil and revolted against God. He advised people to build the Tower and gathered them together in Babylon. Peleg [=Division] was born in 2643; the day he was born, the Earth was divided.[22] Our Sages of blessed memory said it was in the end of his days.

In the Kingdom of Scythia, or Tartaria, there is Kefa [Kiev]. Their first king was Tino [Tanaus[23]] and the river [Tanais = Don] is named after him. Half of the Sea de la Tino [Azov Sea] is in Europe and half is in Asia. It does not belong to any of the four parts of the world, for they are Barbarians, meaning people without good qualities who do not understand justice.[24] In Tartaria, or Scythia, there are Amazons who inhabit the Kingdom of women; they cut off a breast each to fight better. In the days of Reu, the Amazons lived between Scythia and Alboneses, close to Alemania [Germany].[25] As they count, [it was] in AM 2773. ‘Amazons’ means ‘no breasts’.

In the days of Reu the Kingdom of Egypt was established, and the first king was Shoresh [Soros]. That is Africa. Then Bohemia was founded, it was named after their king Bohemio; he came in the days of Division. Their capital is Prague. There were Amazons, three sisters[26]; the youngest of them married and since then men began to enslave them. Serug was born in 2905.[27] Twenty-five years later, the Kingdom of Syria was founded (2930). To the east of Syria lays the Euphrates; to the west, Egypt; to the north, Armenia, and to the South, Arabia; there are Damascus, Palestine and Babylon. Their first king was Bilus Nimrod, he was evil and made an idol named after himself, ‘Bel’, but in his days it was gone.

Nahor was born in 3035 and Tubal, in 3109, and he founded Hispania [Spain] and Lusitania, which is Portugal and Taragon, which is Aragon.[28], [29] Terah was born in 3114; he begat Abraham, Nahor and Haran. Haran begat Lot, Sarah and Milcah. Nahor and Abraham married daughters of Haran in Haran. Haran is in the Mesopotamian Kingdom in Aram Naharaim.[30] At first they were in the Chaldean kingdom, in the city called Ur. Mesopotamia is in the middle of Tigri, to the east of it flows the river Tigris and to the west - the river Euphrates, to the south - Babylonia and to the North, Caucasus.

Parush was the first king of Syria (3141). Some people identify him with Ham, son of Noah.

The Third Era runs from Abraham until King David, pbuh (940 by Jewish count; 941 by Isidore’s). Abraham was born in 1948 [1815 BC] according to Jews and in 3184 [2015 BC] according to the author that relies on Isidore. The discrepancy is 1,039 years. It is said that Abraham reigned in Damascus. When there was a famine in Palestine, he moved to Egypt. The pharaoh took his wife and God immediately inflicted serious suffering upon him. His priests told him it was his fault for he had taken a wife of a stranger. They knew he was a great sage. At that time, Egypt had no wisdom at all. The pharaoh asked [Abraham] to teach astronomy and mathematics, and he taught everybody. They say Isaac was offered to God when he was 25 years old; a Midrash says[31] he was 40. Rebecca was 13 or 15 years old. Some of our sages of blessed memory say[32] he was 37. It is strange, as Rebecca was three, at that time. According to Abraham ibn Ezra[33], Isaac was 13 and [like a] slave to his father when he was offered by his father. Nowhere did we find the merit [of the offering] ascribed to anyone but Abraham our forefather. If Isaac were 37, it would be suitable to ascribe merit to him, but God [alone] knows the truth.

Jupiter reigned in Year 37 of Abraham. Then people began to worship stars. Sodom and Gomorrah sank in Year 99 of Abraham (3283). By their count, Isaac was born in 3284, one year after the sinking of Sodom. Crete is Candia, in the Peloponnesian Sea near Uzzon (3313). Some say that Candia is in the middle of the earth. There is music and other good things. Abraham married Keturah in 3321 when Sarah died.[34] Our sages of blessed memory said[35] he married her after Isaac’s marriage, and so it seems from the Scripture. [Of the sons of] sons of Keturah was Epher; he moved to Africa and as his name is Epher, it was called Africa.[36]

Minerva is Tritona (Year 58 of Isaac; AM 3342); she was wise, performed miracles, and they worshipped her as goddess, deusa. She established the lore of war and theoretical mathematics. Diana, daughter of Jupiter and sister of the Sun, was worshipped as goddess. In Year 60 of Isaac, when Jacob was born, King Iniko began to reign in Tisria, a part of Greece, that is Javan. The river has been named after him. Jacob was born in AM 3345. In Year 91 of Jacob, Joseph was born. A wise woman named Ceres married the king of Sicily in AM 3400, that is Year 25 of Jacob, and she instructed people to plough with oxen, to plant seeds and to bake bread from wheat. Before that, people ate meat and suchlike. She was like a goddess for them and they called her Proserpine, the goddess of fertility.[37] Sicily was called Sicula. In 3408, Tisria was founded, it is in Javan [Greece]. In Year 75 of Jacob, he took the blessing from Esau and escaped to Laban in Haran in the kingdom of Mesopotamia (AM 3420). Reuben was born in AM 3425 and Joseph, in AM 3434.

Jupiter II vanquished a cannibal king (3448). For this good deed of killing the evil king, he was called Jupiter, the [God of] Justice. Rhodes was established in AM 3459. ‘Rhodes’, the native rose in Greek, gave its name to the island. We mentioned (above) that the name came from ‘Rodanim’. It was built in Year 15 of Joseph. Jacob died in 3489. Prometheus the Wise (3420) learned astronomy in the mountains and taught it in the kingdom of Syria. Then he learned how to get fire from stone. He taught people to wear a ring on the fourth finger, where there is a heart blood vessel; so a ring cheers the heart. It became a custom in Rome; judges and grandees would wear a ring of gold; others wore rings of silver and slaves, of iron. Everybody praised this sage. Antares [Atlas] was a wise man and some people say he was the son of Prometheus. He was knowledgeable in the theory of astronomy. He learned astronomy in Greece and people said that he reached Heaven. He had seven daughters[38]; one of them was called Maia Maio. Maia was the mother of Mercury and a mistress of Jupiter III. In her honour, there is the month of May. And the Majas are civilized women. Merchants worshiped and made sacrifices to Mercury. In Christian countries, it is a custom to celebrate the First of May. The days are long and thus this month is called May, for in the foreign tongue ‘major’ means ‘big’. His second daughter was Ilicata [Electra?] and his third was Istonofi [Asterope?], who was the mistress of Martin [Mars?], mother of Aperkon [Apollo?] and Zilbun [Sylvan?] They say she is forever a virgin[39]. That is hard for Christians. His fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh daughters were called Fida. Antares was king of Tuscany, in Florence and Parma (3610). Then there was Aspiros [Ascanos?], brother of Antares, who was king of Hispania and the country was named after him. So they called Noga [Venus] the star, and it is named after her. His brother exiled him to Italy.

On the Captivity of Egypt in 3541, Isidore says it lasted 144 years after the death of Joseph. Augustine, perish his name, says 141 years. Our sages of blessed memory say that it was about 140 years, according to the tradition. There is just a small discrepancy between them: about four years. It would be good if that were the case for all other calculations. They say there was a scribe from Persia at the pharaoh [’s Court]. He foretold that a son would be born to the Jews, he would humble Egyptians and elevate Israel. Thus the pharaoh ordered all males put to death and gave the girls to Egyptians as wives. They say that, before Moses was born, Amram had had prophetic dreams that he would have a son who would redeem Israel. He told the dream to his wife and they rejoiced for it would reveal the greatness of Israel. When Moses was born, his father and mother immediately saw the signs, (namely his beauty and words) and [understood the prophesy] would be fulfiled. For three months they hid him before throwing him into the river. Pharaoh’s daughter named Tamor [Tarmuta] came to the river and gave the child to Egyptian wet nurses, but the child did not want to nurse. His sister Miriam told the pharaoh’s daughter that the child was unused to them, and she called for a Jewess. She called his mother and named him Moses, which is an Egyptian composite name, moy, meaning ‘water’[40] and she, meaning ‘taken out of’. So says Joseph b. Gorion, but the Scripture does not say so explicitly.

Asia Minor extends from Philistines and Syria to India, which is already Asia Major. It takes its name after the King Asia. There were four kings named Mercury, some came before the Flood and some, after. There was also Maia, as mentioned above. Saturn was a great king in Candia [Crete] in 3600.

Aaron was born in AM 3604 and Moses, in AM 3607. At the same time lived Pluto, who was called the Ruler of Hell for he disdained wisdom and merely worked the land. He was a son of Saturn and brother to Jupiter. Negroponte [Euboea] est. in 3652. The time of Job was before the Exodus. He belonged to the fifth generation after our forefather Abraham. He was a descendent of Esau. He was a king of Edom, [his real name was] Yovav b. Zerah. He was born of Basra. This was his mother’s name, but according to the Scripture[41], this was the name of a city in Edom, south of Palestine.[42] The time of Job was three years before the Exodus, while the Exodus was in 3687 [BC 1512]. According to the true tradition of Israel, [the Exodus was in] AM 2448 [BC 1312], or Year 500 of Abraham, while Abraham was born in 1948. The discrepancy is 1,239 years. Mitolin [Mytilene], an island near Turkey est. 3690. Janus was the first king of Italy. He killed a beast named janus and thus got his name. They say he was Zepho, son of Eliphaz, grandson of Esau.[43] He applied to Saturn for he was removed from Candia and shared with him his kingdom. It was Year 5 of the Exodus (AM 3692). He gave his name to the month of January; he is shown with two faces and there were seven rulers by that name. Janus I was a son of Noah; Janus II, son of Japheth and Janus III, son of Tubalcain, son of Japheth, and he was in Milan in Lombardy. As we said, Janus IV was [he who gave his name to] the month of January. The fifth was Janus Kreo and Janus VI, the Greek Grino[44] son of Jupiter who came to Italy with Saturn. Janus VII was a Trojan who enlarged the city of Genoa, and the city was established by Nagiano [Genoan], who came from Egypt, and because of the sea inogid [Ligurian?] in foreign tongue, Genoa was named after him. Hannibal, king of Carthage (near Tunis) sacked Genoa. The Ishmaelites sacked Genoa as well when they entered Spain.

Korah rose against Moses, pbuh, in the 22nd year of Moses’ reign in the desert (AM 3709).[45] In 30th year of Moses’ reign there was Hercules, a great astronomer. He had two sons, Sardinio and Corsico, and the two isles opposite Genoa were named after them. Israel came to the Land with Joshua in 3727; Joshua reigned for 27 years. It is close to the opinions of our sages of blessed memory. The Isle of Sicily was built by Isiculus (it has the form of a triangle[46]), three years after Joshua’s death in AM 3721; it was named Siculo Ascalia[47] after him. It is called the storehouse of wheat, food, meat, cheese and all else. Othniel b. Kenaz judged Israel after Joshua for 40 years (3779). For Phineas the Hugh Priest (3701), we do not know how long he reigned. In 3770, the glass mirror was invented. They say the rape of Benjamin [the Levite’s] mistress in Gibeah took place in Year 30 of Othniel b. Kenaz.[48]

Ehud b. Gera judged for 80 years (3800). Trolaya Batikia, a great city, was founded in 3840 (Year 40 of Ehud). It is in Asia Major. Regarding Pisolina [Pistoia?] near Florence in the kingdom of Tuscany, these cities are the same as Florence and Pisa [and are] against Genoa. Joseph b. Gorion called it Toscana. Pisolina was founded in 3842 [BC 1357]. Sibyl was the first prophetess in Italy (3843). Every woman who foretells the future is called a sibyl.

Hercules, the last of that name, was a giant (3845). He killed snakes as a baby in his crib. He killed the lion and performed 12 [great] deeds, as written, from the days of Joshua till the Sack of Troy. That was in Year 3 of Abdon b. Hillel (AM 4033). Then all Latin languages came into being. Hapaitas in 3879 [BC 1320].

Deborah of the tribe of Ephraim, and her husband Barak of the tribe of Naphtali, judged for 40 years. In Midrash [they say that] ‘wife of Lapidoth’ [should read] ‘woman of thunder [barakim] and lightning’.[49] Those 40 years contain the 40 years of the oppression by Jabin, the King of Canaan. Thus spoke the sages. Our Master Asher said[50] that, because women are not fit to bear witness, neither are they fit to judge. How then could Deborah judge? He [gave two possible explanations]: Deborah was different for they agreed to be judged by her [or] she advised the judges of Israel by Divine guidance.

Mercury the last of that name invented the art of harmony, this is music (3900). Gideon b. Joash judged Israel for 40 years, including seven years of Midianite and Amalekite oppression (3919). In Year 25 of Gideon, the Trojan War began (AM 3944). Abimelech, son of Gideon, reigned for three years. Then came Philemon. He invented the musical instrument called kodo. Years 3968 and 3961, (at the end of Abimelech’s reign) there was a great war between aisentiaros [centaurs] and the men of Tisiria [Thessaly?] in Javan in Greece. Then all the centaurs were killed; none of these beasts survived. Thola b. Puah (3962) reigned for 24 years. Then reigned Paon, king of Latins in Italy. Priam king of Troy reigned in the days of Thola b. Puah for 52 years. He had 60 sons. Aeneas was his nephew. Then there was the kingdom of Mibia Bara, its borders, or limits were Asia Misr[51], which is Damascus, Palestine and the Sea of Ocean, which is the Sea of Jaffa and Gifri [Cyprus] or Kabris in Arabic. The kingdom was called Midia after the woman named Medea. Then Theseus reigned in Athens, the city of wisdom in Greece, in 3974. He did many good deeds for his kingdom, and he saved [his city] from their enemies, like Hercules.

Jair of Gilead judged Israel for 22 years (AM 4985 by their count). In that year there was a woman called Nicostrata[52], who was a witch and wise woman. She killed their wizards and escaped to a fortress where Rome was about to be founded. She married a Latin king. She made the Latin letters for the language they spoke. She made the alphabet of 19 letters, to which others later added more. Jephthah of Gilead judged Israel for six years; he sacrificed his daughter and slaughtered her and it was against the Blessed God’s will (4007). In 4010 came Hector, son of the king of Troy, and his son Astenakti [Astyanax] the Hero. All men of Greece feared him. Archilios [Achilles] the Greek killed Hector. Then there was Penthesilea, Queen of the Amazons. She taught the Trojans the art of war against Greeks. That was in 4012. When she heard about Hector, she desired him and went to the battlefield of the Greeks to see him (4012). Then there was a king in Tusria [Thessaly?] in Greece who was a great astronomer, physician and sage. It was Archilios [Achilles]; he waged war against Troy and killed Hector. They asked their oracle when they went to Troy and were told to go with Irkilos [Achilles].

Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel for seven years (4013). Some people say he is identical with Boaz who married Ruth. So say the sages of Gentiles who took it from the words of our sages of blessed memory[53] and from the [Aramaic] translation [of the Bible]. That year the Trojan War began. The king was Priam. The cause of the war was as follows. The King invited three beautiful women to a feast. They were called ‘deussos’ [goddesses]. Then, an uninvited woman came in. In order to annoy them, he sent three apples for the women, with the best apple intended for the most beautiful woman, in order to foster hatred among them for they were divided as to who was the most beautiful.

Elon the Zebulunite was tenth Judge of Israel. Joseph b. Gorion called him ‘Akilon’. He judged Israel for ten years. In the Book it is written that the 70 Elders who translated the [Scripture] did not write the letter ‘L’. Afterwards Abdon son of Hillel from Ephraim judged Israel for eight years (4030). He had 70 sons and 40 warriors. While those three reigned, times were good and people well fed, for they worshipped Blessed God. In Year 3 of Abdon, Troy was sacked by Greeks and ruined forever (AM 4033 by their count[54]). The Turk called Bene Tomi[55] said he sought revenge against Greece for the blood of his native Troy.

The city of Benevento in the Neapolitan kingdom was founded in 4037; it was called by Piaitas[56], Maleventum for 30,000 Romans died there.[57] It belongs to the pope.

Naples was founded the same year by the Roman king, while Gaeta was built by Aeneas. He named the city after his nurse. It is the most beautiful of towns and the great mother [of cities]. The city of Icilea was founded in Italy. Samson son of Manoah judged Israel for 20 years (4038). In Year 2 of Samson, Ruth the Moabite and Naomi came, according to Jerome. Samson was the last of judges until year [40]58. That year died Uzzi b. Bukki b. Abishua b. Phineas b. Eleazar b. Aaron, the high priest. The high priesthood went to the seed of Ithamar for 120 years. Eli was the first and Abiathar was the last, because in his [Jerome?] opinion, Solomon killed Abiathar and the high priesthood reverted to descendents of Eleazar, namely to Zaddok the Priest. Ancona was founded in Italy in 4051. Eli the [High] Priest judged for 40 years (51). According to the 70 Elders, who translated for King Ptolemy [Septuagint], Eli judged 20 years. Padua was founded near Venice in 81. Out of it rode 120,000 horsemen. Sharbisenti was also built there. That year began the kings of Zarephath, which is France and it was called Gallia (4082). Its first king was Franco and thus the people of Zarephath are called Francos. Lombardy is called Francia Sizarpina [Cisalpine], including Genoa and its area; the kingdom Francia Taraspina [Transalpine] means ‘beyond rocks and mountains’.

The kingdom of Inglatera [England] began in 83. The first king was Brutanos, son of the Latin king.[58] He killed his father the king of Latins by mistake while hunting in the fields. He escaped from Ililia [Italy?] to Inglatera [England], the big island in the Western Sea. It is called Great Britannia in the West. It has the shape of a triangle, like Sicily. There were Giants whom he defeated and reigned over them.[59] The longest day is 17 hours long there. It is a very rich place, they have gold, wool and hunting dogs. His mother died at childbirth. Then the Island of Birnia [Hibernia, Ireland] was founded; there are two sorts of precious stones, named akatis[60] and iris[61].

In Year 4093, the Ark was captured. The Prophet Samuel, pbuh, (98) judged Israel 26 years until 124. There is a version that he reigned for 40 years, anointed Saul in his 12th year of reign and Saul judged for 27 years during Samuel’s life. This version is erroneous for it says afterwards ‘King David - [4]124’. In the book of Ben Gorion it says that king Saul reigned for 20 years: 18 years in Samuel’s lifetime and what the Scripture says[62], two years after Samuel’s death. Aeneas of Troy came to Italy and became king in 4111. That year Doeg put to the sword Nob, the town of priests.[63] The kingdom of Athens fell in 4113 [1086 BC]. Pisa was founded in [4]193. They are strong at sea. They also went to sack Jerusalem and took along the columns and vessels. There is soil from Jerusalem. If a man is buried there, his flesh disintegrates within three days, like in the land of Israel. In Rome they also have a field of Jerusalem soil with the same properties.

The Fourth Era begins with King David, pbuh (4194 [1005 BC]). From birth of Abraham to David’s kingdom, there passed 940 years. Our sages of blessed memory[64] explained that 500 years passed from Abraham’s birth to the Exodus and 480 years passed from the Exodus to David’s kingdom. Forsooth, King David came in AM 2487 [1273 BC] by Jewish count. He reigned for 40 years. In Year 13 of David, there was Dido, queen of Tyre. Her brother killed her husband; she took all her husband’s riches and went to [found] Carthage in Tunis.[65] There she bought a field as great as an ox skin could hold. Then she had shred the skin to pieces and established [on the ground encircled by the shreds] the great city of Carthage. On her way from Tyre she visited Cyprus and took along some girls who worshipped Venus the star. After she built the city, King [Iarbas, who had sold her the land] wanted to marry her, but she refused for she did not wish to be unfaithful to her husband, though he was dead, and threw herself into the fire.

Solomon (4164) reigned for 40 years. He uttered 3,000 proverbs, equal to the amount of trees in the world[66]. He compiled a book of nature, as well, but today only three books of Solomon are extant[67]. He cast a spell over the demons, and [with their assistance] began to build the temple early in his fourth year of reign. He completed it in his eighth year, but the Scripture does not record it[68]. Shemaiah the Prophet appeared in Year 15 of Solomon. [Later he] convinced Rehoboam not to fight Jeroboam.[69] Iddo, son of Nathan the Prophet, lived at that time as well (Joseph b. Gorion called him ‘Idan son of Nathan the Prophet’). By his will, the hand of Jeroboam shrivelled up.[70] He ate bread with a false prophet.[71] A lion killed him.[72] The Queen of Sheba came to Solomon in his 15th year of reign (her name was Aqaula).[73] She crossed the Red Sea with great trouble and travelled far to listen to Solomon’s wisdom. She brought great riches and gave Solomon 20,000 weights of gold, nice perfume, balsam [afarsimon] and other gifts. Zaddok was from the beginning of Solomon’s kingship and was the eighth[74] high priest. Rehoboam reigned for 17 years (4204). Jeroboam reigned for 22 years (205). Abijah son of Rehoboam reigned for three years (224). Asa reigned for 41 years (226). Then there was Hanani the Prophet[75]. Nadav b. Jeroboam reigned for two years (288). Baasha, king of Israel reigned for 22 years (230).

Capua was founded near Naples in 230. Jehu son of Hanani the Prophet came in the days of Baasha (247).[76] Ilah b. Baasha (252). Zimri (203). Jehoshaphat, king of Judah reigned for 25 years (261). In the 13th year of Jehoshaphat’s reign, King Tiberio [Tiberinus] became the tenth king of Latins. He fell into the river and died. Thus the river of Rome was named the ‘Tiber’ after him. It was previously called the Albula. He left Agrippa, a son who became the 11th king of Latins (Year 22 of Jehoshaphat). He reigned for 40 years and transferred in his lifetime the kingdom to his son Armolio [Romulus]. [Ahaziah] son of Ahab reigned for two years (Year 23 of Jehoshaphat). Elijah the Prophet. Some people identify him with Jonah the Prophet but it seems wrong for Jonah was a disciple of Elisha. Joram son of Jehoshaphat reigned for eight years (4290, Year 167 of David). When he was 40, he married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab. Jehoram became king of Israel in the same year. He reigned for 12 years. In his days came the famine in Samaria, and Elisha was there.[77]

Jehoiada the High Priest lived 130 years (4299). Jonadab son of Rahab, son of Jethro the father-in-law of Moses, of good seed, of the House of Pharisees the Righteous ones: his sons lived in the time of Jeremiah, they did not plant a vineyard nor build a house. Year 299.

Ahaziah king of Judah reigned for one year (4298); Athaliah reigned for seven years. Jehu king of Israel reigned for 28 years (4303). Hazael was king of Aram and Damascus, that is Syria, (Year 302). Joash was tenth king of Judah (4306). Jehoahaz son of Jehu reigned for 17 years (Year 39). Amaziah reigned for 29 years (344). In 362, Elisha died. The Scripture implies it was Year 36 of Joash, King of Judah, which was year [4]342. Perhaps this is a mistake. Jonah followed Elisha. Some people say Jonah was the son of [the widow of] Zarephath whom Elisha returned to life. Amos the Prophet prophesied in year 362. Amoz the Prophet, father of Isaiah, lived then. Jeroboam son of Joash king of Israel reigned for 41 years (year 363). Uzziah king of Judah reigned for 52 years (4375). When he entered to burn the incense, there was an earthquake and a symptom of leprosy broke out on his forehead.[78] Know that after Amaziah king of Judah died, Judah had no king for 13 years. The kingdom of Media was founded in Year 381. Hosea son of Beeri, Joel and Obadiah the Prophets flourished (389). The Jews say [Obadiah the Prophet] is the same Obadiah who was in charge of the House of Ahab in the days of Elijah. Isaiah the Prophet, son of Amoz the Prophet, (year 399), was killed by Manasseh, his relative, as he was sawed together with a tree. Zechariah reigned for six months (420).

The same year reigned Aolio Silfo[79], 15th king of Latins. He reigned for 44 years. He exiled his elder brother[80] and killed his elder cousin. He seized his niece[81] and forced her into [Vestal] seclusion but she gave birth to Romi and Romilo[82]. The brothers killed King Aolio Silvo[83] and restored the exiled old man to the throne. Nobody knows who lay with the mother of Romi and Romilus, but she gave birth to twin boys. When the king learned of it, he killed her, buried the mother alive. He ordered to cast the twins into the river, but as the river had overflowed its banks, they weren’t cast where the king ordered, but they were cast at the riverbank. A shepherd found them and took them home to his wife. She was a harlot and nursed them. Some people say they were taken and nursed by wolves. Maybe it is an allegory; a harlot nursed them as a she-wolf would[84].

Menahem, the 19th king of Israel reigned for 10 years (408). Then reigned the 11th king of Corinth, who was king of Greece. The son of Menahem[85] (413) reigned for 11 years but two years according to the Jews. Jotham king of Judah (426) reigned for 16 years. [Pecah son of Remaliah] king of Israel, killed his Master and reigned for 20 years. Nahum the Prophet flourished (426). Ahaz son of Jotham (42) reigned for 17[86] years. He [became] king in Year 319 of David’s reign. Until that time there had been 21 Latin kings in Italy. The first was Janus, the second was Saturn, etc.

Rome was founded in 4448 (Year 324 since David’s reign; Year 5 of King Ahaz’ reign).[87] Construction was completed in the 11th year of Hezekiah. Thus [Rome] was built in 22 years. There were seven hills and seven towns. It was built by Romi [Remus] and Romulus; they gave the city their name and reigned for 38 years. Some say their father was Martos [Mars]; others say he was his uncle Mamas. That is the opinion of our sages obm in the Midrash of Psalms in the verse ‘You are the helper of the fatherless’.[88] They prepared a great feast for all the towns around Rome, and for their women and daughters. At the feast they snatched their wives and daughters and gave them to the men of Rome who had no wives. Thus there were big wars between them and the Sabines. Eventually they made peace so that the Romans and Sabines became one nation.

In the generation of Division, Nimrod the Giant came to Rome and built a city there. While Rome was built, there were prophets such as Hosea, Joel, Amos, Jonah, Obadiah, Nahum, Isaiah etc. The Exile of the Ten Tribes occurred in Year 453. There were 18 kings of Israel. Hezekiah son of Ahaz (4491: should be 4459) reigned for 28[89] years. The same year[90], year 498, Saragosa di Sicilia[91] was founded. The second king of Rome (Year 425). The kingdom of Aram fell in Year 486. Then began the Chaldean kingdom. Their first king Merodach-Baladan sent [gifts] to Hezekiah king of Judah [as he had heard of] his illness.[92] Then there was the story of Tobias the Righteous. The angel Raphael visited him, cured his father’s eyes and more. It is told in detail in a separate book attached to the 24 books [of the Bible]. The end of Hezekiah’s reign was in 486. Manasseh son of Hezekiah (487) reigned for 55 years.

Constantinople was founded in 4536 (Year 49 of Manasseh’s reign). It was called Byzantium. King Constantine would enlarge and broaden it almost 1,000 years later, and afterwards rename it Constantinople after himself. It is called the ‘Second Rome’, for in Year 301 of Nativity of That Man[93], he began to reign, and he build the city up. He accepted Christian faith in Year 318 of Nativity of That Man in the days of [Pope] Sylvester and he built the city. Afterwards, year 1093 of Christians, the king of Turks took it. Afterwards, the French and Horsianos[94] took it from them and the city remained in their hands for 360 years, as the number of degrees in a circle. In 1453 of Christians (5213 Year of Israel) Mahmud son of Tomi [Ottoman] took it. He is the Grand Turk, he died in 481 of Christians, 5241 Year of Israel.

Amon son of Manasseh (4542) reigned for 12 years according to the 70 translators and for twenty [read: two] years according to Jews. The author of the book accepted the version of Septuagint, and said: Josiah his son reigned in year 524 [read: 554] and reigned for 32 years; he was eight years old when Hilkiah the High Priest reigned (4569). Jeremiah (587). Baruch the scribe of Jeremiah was a prophet and he compiled a book; the Christians have it and it is attached to the Book of Jeremiah. Jehoahaz (587) reigned for three months. Eliakim, the elder son of Josiah, is Jehoiakim; he became the king same year and reigned for 11 years.[95] Jaconiah [Jehoiachin] became king in 597; he reigned for three months and ten days. Zedekiah, who became king the same year, reigned for 11 years.

Marsilia [Marseilles] was founded by the sea in France in 599 [600 BC]. There is a chain to seal off the sea. The Aragon king who conquered Naples burned it down and resettled it later. Habakkuk prophesied in 423, in the days of Hezekiah. He was held by the angel, when Daniel was thrown into the lions’ den and the angel brought him bread for nourishment and strength. Then Ezekiel prophesied in Babylon. Daniel began in 660 when the Temple was destroyed. In the Diaspora of Babylon there was the incident with Susanna, daughter of Hilkiah and wife of Ioakim. She was very beautiful, and three elders, judges who used to visit her house daily in order to commerce with her husband, desired and lusted after her beauty. Once, when her husband was not at home, they entered her garden while she was naked. She was taking the ritual bath after her nidah [menstruation]. They demanded sexual intercourse with her, threatening otherwise to bear false testimony that they had found her having intercourse with a boy. But she said she would rather die than commit sin before God. They did what they said, bore false testimony, and sentenced her to death. Then Daniel in his wisdom and gift of prophesy saved her. He investigated the case again. He separated the elders and questioned them one by one. Their testimonies did not fit. The elders were executed. Maybe they were Ahab son of Koliah and Zedekiah son of Maasiah, who were burned by the king of Babylon.

In the same year, King Zedekiah’s reign ended (660). Then there was Pythagoras, who invented geometry, measures, weights and music. He said human souls transmigrate. He arranged religion in Italy. He did not wish to be called ‘wise’, but ‘lover of wisdom’, which is ‘philosopher’. He compiled many books but Hathinos [Athenians?] burned most of them. Then there were the philosophers Anakarsos [Anaxagoras?] and Moshon. Jerusalem was destroyed in AM 4609 [590 BC] (3338 by Jewish count [422 BC]).

There were 22 kings of Judah.

David reigned for 40 years.

Solomon reigned for 40 years.

Rehoboam reigned for 18 years.

Abiah reigned for three years.

Asa reigned for 41 years.

Jehoshaphat reigned for 25 years.

Jehoram reigned for one year.

Ahaziah reigned for one year.

Athaliah reigned for seven years.

Joash reigned for 40 years.

Amaziah reigned for 29 years.

Uzziah reigned for 51 years.

Jotham reigned for 16 years.

Ahaz reigned for 16 years.

Hezekiah reigned for 29 years.

Manasseh reigned for 55 years.

Amon reigned for 12 years (according to their opinion).

Josiah reigned for 32 years.

Jehoahaz reigned for three months.

Jehoiakim reigned for 11 years.

Jaconiah reigned for three months.

Zedekiah reigned for 11 years.

The Fifth Era - the Exile of Israel in Babylon for 70 years (609). Then there was the case of Gedaliah, son of Ahikam.[96] They say when he was merry of wine at the feast, Ishmael killed Gedaliah. And immediately they fled to Egypt. Five years later, Nebuchadnezzar marched on Egypt and conquered it; then he took captive all people of Israel who were there and in other countries, as it is said in the end of Jeremiah. Nebuchadnezzar II, son of Nebuchadnezzar reigned (628) for ten years. Evil Merodach, the fourth king of Babylon, reigned for 18 years (638). Nebuchadnezzar I reigned for 35 years though our sages of blessed memory say 45 years but they do not mention Nebuchadnezzar II. About Evil Merodach, our sages of blessed memory say that he reigned for 23 years, and it broadly fits. He freed Jehoiachin from prison and sat him first among the kings.

Then there was the great Greek physician Anaximander and another of the same name. In Year 638, there was Isopit who compiled many books. He was Greek but his books were translated into Latin.

The Kingdom of Persia began in Year 30 of the Captivity of Babylon (AM 4660). Their first king was Cyrus who reigned for 30 years; he fought the king of Babylon named Belshazzar and vanquished him. He conquered all the East, and conquered the kingdom of Tarslos and killed them. One queen[97] sent her son to the war and Cyrus killed him. Then the queen went and killed Cyrus, and cut off his head and member. Persia is the head of Asia Major; named after a Greek king called Perses[98] who married the queen and built the country that bears his name. Misbania[99] includes Karamanos [Karamania[100]], Antioch and Britanos. Aruch says, Karamanos is up north, beyond Persia and there are few fruits due to the great cold.

Lucio Tarquino [Lucius Tarquinius], seventh king of Romans, was malevolent; he was exiled and died in 649. Then there was Haggai the Prophet and Zechariah b. Berekiah; they are of the 12 Books of Minor Prophets. Then there was Omriya [Cimmerian?] Sibyl who compiled nine books of prophecies. She came to Tarquinius, the well-known king, but he did not wish to pay her what she asked.[101] Then she burned three books before him on the first day. On the second day, she burned another three books. On the third day, he paid what she asked and got the last three books. In them, all was written, all that would happen to the Romans till the end of Time.

Then in Turkey there was Ispitima the Sibyl (Year 655). Then Belshazzar[102], the fifth King of Babylon reigned for 17 years, according to Joseph b. Gorion. In the first year of his reign, Daniel had the vision of four beasts. Darius the Mede, was a son-in-law of Cyrus I, who destroyed Babylon; he was 62 when he became king in 656. Daniel was his advisor and he was called the ‘man of desires’ for he desired to know the future. Cambyses, son of King Cyrus (670) reigned for eight years. He was bad for Israel. Holofernes was his army commander; he came to destroy Israel but Judith killed him. In the book[103], [the king] is called Nebuchadnezzar. This Book [of Judith] is appended to the 24 Books of Bible. This Cambyses captured the king of Egypt in his fifth year of reign. Judith (year 670) killed Holofernes. Smerdis,[104] the third king of Persia (678), reigned for seven months; Darius killed him. Cambyses had no son. Darius became king in year ‘79 (Year 70 of the Babylonian Captivity). He was the fourth king of Persia and reigned for 37 years. He returned the holy vessels to the Temple and appointed Zerubbabel as pasha of Judah. He made him great and sent him to Jerusalem with his people of Israel in ’79; and he married the daughter of Cambyses. He was a malevolent king. Joiakim the High Priest was high priest (year 680) for six years; he was a son of Jeshua [Jesus] the High Priest. He built the temple and the city.[105] In 680, construction of the temple was completed. Then was the end of the Roman kings (Year 686). Thereafter they had no king but only consuls until Julius Caesar who took power by force. In their opinion they had no king for 466 years but for 306 years in the opinion of Jews. All that happened because of the [rape of] Lucrece, of royal blood. [Her husband] and his son-in-law were first consuls of Rome in 686 (Year 10 of Darius). Girsos [Xerxes I] son of Darius (714) reigned for 20 years; he favoured Ezra and vanquished the Egyptians.[106] Eliashib, [son of?] high priest Joiakim, became the high priest in 725 when his father died and served for 32 years. This calls for more study. Artaban, king of Persia (734), reigned for one year. Artaxerxes (735) reigned for 40 years. He had long arms, down to his knees. Nechemiah son of Hilkiah and Ezra the Scribe were in 742, Year 7 of his reign. There was Aksagoras [Anaxagoras?] the philosopher and Avocrat the Physician [Hippocrates] – year 71, who made [the Book of Medicine] (763). There was Gorgias the philosopher (‘64).[107] Socrates[108], master of Plato (‘71), compiled the book of Ethics. He was a great philosopher. On his hand, he wore a ring bearing the inscription ‘Wisdom is man’s friend; foolishness is his enemy’. He mocked idols and thus he was killed.

Xerxes II was the eighth king of Persia; he reigned for two months. Then the ninth king Shibdiano [Sogdianus], king of Persia reigned for seven months. Then Darius king of Persia reigned for 29 years (4729); he was the tenth king. High Priest Joiada[109], the fourth (year ’83), was the high priest for 45 years. Artaxerxes II, Jews called him Ahasuerus, (805) reigned for 40 years over 127 provinces from India to Kush[110]. In his 12th year of reign, he married Esther, daughter of Abihail uncle of Mordecai (Year 817; 128 of the Babylonian Exile). Queen Esther reigned with her husband for 28 years. By their count, Mordecai was a member of the Synedrion who was taken into captivity with Jehoiachin 11 years before the Destruction of the Temple and Babylonian Exile. Thus, in the days of Esther, Mordecai was over 250 years old, and it is amazing that Mordecai and Esther were cousins, children of two brothers, and that she was a virgin. But we can argue that Mordecai’s great-grandfather Kish, not Mordecai, was among the exiles of Jehoiachin. But our sages of blessed memory imply that it was [Mordecai] himself, and that he lived for over 400 years. Thus he was about 120 years old in the days of Esther.

There was Isocrates[111], a Greek philosopher (820). There was Plato the philosopher (824 [375 BC]). He was the first to teach the grammar of language; he was the master of Aristotle. He was from Athens in Greece and went to study in Egypt. He divided philosophy into three parts: ethics, logic and natural science. He said there was one god, the cause of all causes. He was a great sage in all kinds of wisdom and the leading philosopher. He compiled a book called Timaeus, about the world, stars and immortality of the soul. Tully[112] said he did not understand the book in depth. He lived for 81 years. He wrote Timaeus in 4830.[113]

Epicurus the philosopher was a disciple of Socrates (833). He certainly did not study for he wrote erroneously that Blessed Name does not care about earthly things and that the soul died with the body. His followers are called Epicursin[114].

Artaxerxes III, son of Esther, reigned for 26 years. He was cruel; he killed his sister, mother-in-law and all her family. He reigned in 845. The kingdom of Egypt began in 847[115]. In 848, Philip, king of Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great, reigned for 27 years. Ilufona [Olympia?] was his wife. All the chroniclers say Alexander was not Philip’s son, but Nikolo Tomeo’s, meaning Nektanibur, king of Egypt[116]. Jonathan son of Joiada the High Priest (849) served for 43 years.

Demosthenes invented rhetoric, the art of effective speaking, in 856. He lived in Athens in the days of King Philip. Aristotle was 52 in 856 [343 BC]; his masters were Socrates and Plato. He lived for 23 years after Plato’s death and taught Alexander. He said, ‘the sage hides his knowledge’. In the end, the envious men said he spoke against the idols; he fled in order to avoid the fate of Socrates. He lived for 62 years[117] and wrote countless books. Arses, 13th king of Persians (871) reigned for four years. Onias son of Iadua (889) was the 7th high priest and reigned for five years. Simeon the Righteous son of Onias, was the eighth high priest (894) and reigned for 26 years. He was called ‘righteous’ for he was merciful towards the people. His son Onias was small; Eleazar served Simeon the Righteous. Iadua was the sixth high priest (875) after Jonathan his father; he served for 18 years.

Alexander king of Macedonia (874) reigned for 12 years. He became king at 25; he was promiscuous. After his father’s death, he conquered Asklabonia, the Roman Isles, Africa and Syria. He came to Jerusalem and the priests paid him honours. He founded Alexandria, named after him. Darius the first [last?] king of Persians (4865) reigned for six years. Alexander killed him and crossed the Euphrates.

Altogether there were 14 kings of Persia

1          Cyrus I                        30 years

2          Cambyses                    8 years

3          Smerdis                        7 months

4          Darius                          37 years[118]

5          Xerxes[119]                                 20 years[120]

6          Artaban           1 year[121]

7          Artaxerxes [I]              40 years[122]

8          Xerxes[123] [II]               2 months

9          Sobdianus [Sogdianus or Secydianus] 9 months

10        Darius [II] the Famous 29 years[124]

11        Artaxerxes [II] (Ahasuerus, Esther’s husband) 40 years[125]

12        Artaxerxes [III] son of Esther    26 years[126]

13        Arses                                                  4 years[127]

14        Darius [III] the last,                             6 years[128]

The total is 240 years, or 290 years in opinion of our sages of blessed memory.

Three kings of Egypt named ‘Hermes’ [Trismegistos] are called Enoch in our tongue. One is called Mercury, a great sage who compiled the Book of Prophesies and Astrology in 889. Then there was Apulio [Apollonius of Tyana?], friend of Plato, who wrote The Cosmography and many other books. Then there was Diamas and Glistini [Callisthenes of Olynthus][129], disciple of Aristotle and Democrites.

The Sixth Era – The kingdom of Inglaterra [England] was founded. Malta [?] was built in 840 by Ahasuerus king of Persia. Some say it was built in the days of Joshua and it is true. Fabia was founded in Italy in 882. Kimo [Como], Bir Amon [Bergamo], Brescia were built near Milan same time. Verona was built in Lombardy along with Cremona and more many places in Lombardy and Ferrara, that is of Marquis of Ferrara near Venice; Bologna and Florence were built 390 years before the Nativity of That Man. Siena was built 383 years before the Nativity of That Man; as were Alexandria and Italia.

The Seventh Era - Ptolemy, king of Egypt, reigned for 40 years after Alexander (887; 283 years after the Babylonian Exile). He troubled Israel a lot. Then Israel dispersed among the nations in the kingdom of Aram [Rum?] (887) after Alexander. The kingdom of Asia began in 893. The king was Alexander’s brother. Then there was the first [Punic] War of Carthaginians with Romans in 4917.[130] Eleazar the ninth high priest (902) reigned for 37 years. They say he was the brother of Simeon the Righteous (Year 35 of Ptolemy). He sent 70 Elders, translators of Scripture to Ptolemy king of Egypt. Within 17 days they translated it into Greek. The book was gilded and covered with precious stones. Ptolemy gave them many gifts and asked them to visit him in Egypt from time to time. Ptolemy II reigned for 38 years (930; Year 323 after the Babylonian Exile). Antiochus II of Syria (that is Damascus and Aram) reigned for 19 years (4930). The following kings were named ‘Antiochus’ after him as well. The [Punic] War of Carthaginians and Romans (year 939), people of Rome fought Sicily, Sardinia and Africa. The people of Africa rode elephants in the war. Antiochus III king of Aram (951) reigned for 15 years. Peace between Romans and Carthage in 961. Ptolemy king of Egypt (965) reigned for 26 years. The same time Antiochus IV of Aram reigned for 20 years. Onias[131] son of Simeon the Righteous the high priest (964) reigned for nine years; he was kili [parsimonious?]. Ptolemy king of Egypt demanded money from him but he did not wish to pay. The best people of Jerusalem went to him [Ptolemy] to accommodate him. Joseph was the greatest of them all; he and his son Hyrcanus were honoured by the king. Onias fled to Egypt for fear of Antiochus. At that time, the Romans took Milan. Simeon b. Onias was the 12th high priest (978) and served for 22 years. He built up the temple and raised the walls higher. Then there was a miracle: the cisterns were filled with water. In the book of Ben Gorion it is said that Onias son of Onias went to Egypt and he wrote to King Ptolemy and the Queen in Alexandria. [He wrote that] a big house had collapsed and asked for royal permission to build there a temple similar to the Temple of Jerusalem. [He wrote that] it had to be done for Isaiah had prophesied it 420 years earlier. The king replied that he was amazed that Onias would want to build a holy temple in the land of whores. He said he was not hostile to the Law of Moses and would allow construction of the temple. As for Isaiah’s prophecy, may it be fulfiled. Then he came to Alexandria and built the temple and altar; there he found priests and Levites and made [holy] vessels. But one cannot compare the inferior quality of this temple and [holy] utensils with those of the Temple of Jerusalem. Then the sages of the Samaritans and those of Jerusalem came to King Ptolemy to speak about the temple on Mount Gerizim and there was a heated dispute. Besides the true reason [grounded] in the Law that there should be no temples but the temple in Jerusalem, they found that all Gentile kings of all times had sent sacrifices to Jerusalem [while none sent any to Mount Gerizim]. So [the Jews] won the dispute. The king ordered to kill the Samaritans and let the [Jews] do as they wish. Then the Alexandrians turned away from the temple they made, too. A similar story is recorded by our sages of blessed memory in the end of Menachoth.[132]

Antiochus The Great, the second king of Aram (87) reigned for 37 years. Hannibal, king of Carthage, fled to this king from Scipio the Roman general. Then there was Jesus b. Sirah in 590 [990?]. He wrote books that are appended to the 24 books of the Latin Bible. In 993, Hannibal and his brother Hasdrubal were minors when their father died, and they divided Spain along the river Ebro: the bank on the Roman side went to the Romans, while the other bank remained Carthaginian and they built the Carthage of Castile[133]. In 996, Hannibal was 25 and he became the king of Carthage. Onias the High Priest, son of Simeon, reigned (Year 5000) for 29 years. In those days, Antiochus the Great, king of Aram, vanquished King Ptolemy, conquered Jerusalem and devastated it. Some people of Jerusalem opened the gates [for him]; he killed 60,000 Jews, seized all the holy utensils and took 10,000 into captivity. He did great evil to Israel. There was Aristobulus the Jew, the philosopher (AM 5000 [200 BC]).[134] Then there was Adrachmedos [Archimedes?], the engineer and philosopher; he was great in geometry. Ptolemy, the fifth king of Egypt (5008) reigned for 24 years.

There was Panicio [Polybius?], the teacher of the Roman general Scipio (5011). Scipio went to Spain and led great battles for Rome. He fought Hannibal in Carthage near Tunis and destroyed it. He was a philosopher, and it was the said year. King Ptolemy the seventh king (5032) reigned for 35 years. Titus Livy[135], the historian (AM 5033). The same year - Philo[136] the Jew [of Alexandria], descendant of priests. He wrote a book of wisdom in Greek. Cato the philosopher and historian of Egypt - the same year. There was another Cato, the first philosopher of Rome. Then there was the war of Romans against Macedonia (5062). Macedonia is Baiskala Bonia, hundred miles from Venice. It is called Bondalakia. The war was in the Gulf of Venice. In 5034, heresy spread among the priests of the Temple. Then Simeon the Righteous died. Three sons survived him: Onias, Jason and Johanan. Pious Onias had no sons. The other two fought for the high priesthood. They applied to Antiochus the Great, king of Aram, so he banned circumcision and made Israel adopt Gentile names. They also adopted Gentile names. Joshua was called Jason in Greek and Johanan was called Menelaus, the Gentile name, but Onias did not change his name. Menelaus bribed king Antiochus and reigned for 11 years and his younger brother for the next ten years. They applied to the king for him to persecute Israel and impose Gentile names instead of Jewish names. Then Onias went to the king to convince him to cease the persecution but Menelaus sent his favourite to kill him en route and he killed him. The king killed the assassin for he was angered.

Mattathias (5043 [156 BC]), son of Jonathan son of Simeon son of Hasmoneus, belonged to a Jerusalem family called Jehoiarib. He had five sons: Johanan, Simeon, Judah, Eleazar and Jonathan. He adhered to the Law of Moses and he would prefer to die rather than transgress its laws. Antiochus sent [an emissary telling him] to change his religion. He refused and fought, and his sons were with him. As he grew old and was about to die, he commanded his sons to be ready to die for the Law and to follow Simeon’s advice and the heroic might of Judah. They changed names: Johanan became Jaddua; Simeon, Thashai; and Judah, Maccabee. And after him they were called Maccabeans, while Eleazar and Jonathan did not take other names.

Year 46. Judah Maccabee reigned. Then Antiochus king of Persia came to raise a loan and left four generals in the Land of Israel. Judah the Maccabee expelled them all. He made a peace treaty with the Romans. Antiochus sent new generals to fight Judah and he was killed. Before that, Judah had come to the Temple, purified it, fixed the breaches and held a feast. He killed the Jews who had abandoned the Mosaic Law. His brothers Jonathan and Simeon ransomed his body for a great amount of gold and buried him. [Judah] reigned for four years. Then Jonathan reigned for 19 years. Antiochus king of Greece tried to kill him as he had killed his brother Judah. There was a great war and the entire army of the king of Aram invaded the land. Jonathan became famous all over the world and made the peace treaty with the Romans.

Abrakus [Hipparchus?] the astronomer (5029). The Third Punic War (year 62). The Sack of Carthage[137] (65). Ptolemy king of Egypt (67) reigned for 29 years. Simeon son of Mattathias (73) reigned for eight years. Ptolemy, son-in-law of Antiochus[138], invited Simeon to the feast and killed him, his twelve sons and his wife; two other sons were taken hostage. King Hyrcanus[139], son of Simeon (81), the seventh Hasmonean, reigned for 26 years. He was a prophet fit to be [high] priest. He was called Hyrcanus after a king he vanquished and slain. Antiochus king of Aram besieged Jerusalem in the days of Hyrcanus [and demanded] to apostatize. For the people’s benefit, Hyrcanus opened David’s Tomb and found there … gold drachmas. He removed them, paid 300 to King Antiochus, who lifted the siege. Hyrcanus went to Samaria and destroyed it. It was eventually rebuilt in the days of Herod and renamed Sebaste rather then Samaria. Hyrcanus ended the controversy with the Pharisees. He was very old and died at a ripe age. He was survived by five sons: Aristobulus, Antigonus and three others. He prophesied on his deathbed that his sons would not adhere to the Law and it happened so. His son Aristobulus (5107) reigned for one year and exchanged the priesthood for royalty; he took the royal crown for himself[140].

As mentioned above, Onias the Great, son of Simeon the Righteous, was the High priest in the days of Antiochus the Evil. Afterwards Seleucus son of Antiochus sent his general to loot the Temple of Jerusalem. As he entered it, two boys assassinated him. Fearing the king, Onias prayed to the Lord who resurrected him. The general returned to the king and told him, whomever you wish to be killed, send him to [loot] Jerusalem. After Onias’ death, his son was a little boy, and the king gave the high priesthood to Johanan, called Menelaus.

Jaddua the High Priest, son of Jonathan, was the sixth high priest after Joshua son of Jehozadak the high priest in the days of Alexander the Great. His brother Manasseh was son-in-law to Sanballat or to other Samaritans. They were expelled from Jerusalem and built the temple on Mount Gerizim. They spoke evil [of the Jews] to Alexander the Macedonian, while he was in the Sidonian kingdom and Alexander came to Jerusalem and laid the siege. Surrounded by priests, High Priest Jaddua went out to him wearing ecclesiastical dress. When Alexander saw him, he dismounted and prostrated himself before the Name, which was written on the diadem. One of his generals asked why he prostrated himself before a Jew. He answered, ‘I bow to his God, as [His Name] is written on his forehead. I prostrate myself for I saw this image in my dream.’ He entered Jerusalem joyously, made sacrifices to the Blessed Name and gave presents to the High Priest and other priests. He invited the leaders of Jerusalem to ask him for a favour. They asked for seven years of tax relief for Jerusalem, and he fulfiled this wish and others of theirs. When Alexander died, Jaddua the High priest died immediately. The Book of Ezra lists the high priests before Jaddua: Joshua son of Jehozadak, Ioakim, Eliashib, Jaddua, Jonathan and Jaddua. As for Ezra himself, there is some doubt about whether he was a high priest or, as the Book of Ezra states, perhaps only head of a priestly family while his brother was Jehozadak, and Joshua was his nephew.

Let us return to Aristobulus. He reigned for one year[141], starting in ‘84 of Babylonian Exile. On advise of his brother Antigonus he arrested another brother of his. He died a painful death from internal bleeding of the intestines. After Aristobulus, Alexander [Jannai], the second brother of his father Hyrcanus, reigned for 27 years. His [Jewish] name was Johanan[142]. At first he was good but later became evil. He killed 1,000 elders and 40 [important] men with their wives; and died of great disease[143]. This Alexander became the king in 5108; the Antiochus dynasty of the kings of Aram ended in 114. Alexander left two sons: Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Alexander left his wife Alexandra to reign as queen for the common good. She reigned for nine years and died at the age of 73. She made her elder son Hyrcanus the high priest. He was the 23rd high priest for 24 years. After their mother’s demise, the sons fell out. Hyrcanus vanquished his brother Aristobulus but they made peace. Aristobulus became king and Hyrcanus, high priest. But later Hyrcanus regretted the decision and joined forces with the Arabian king. They besieged Jerusalem and Aristobulus. Thus came Roman rule to Jerusalem. Pompey came to Jerusalem, saw the Temple and its dignity[144] and did not loot it. Later he went to Rome and Julius Caesar vanquished him. Pompey escaped to Egypt to Ptolemy, who cut off Pompey’s head and sent it to Julius Caesar. Pompey was the first to make Jerusalem pay tax to Rome.

Julius Caesar[145] was a Roman leader (147 [52 BC]); another Roman leader, Crassus, looted the Temple (148) and went to Persia where he was killed. Then there were Marcus Filius and Tullius, Lucretius the Poet[146] and Apollodoros the Orator. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the philosopher, had great talent for the Latin tongue and its purity. After the Egyptian kings, Cleopatra daughter of Ptolemy, became queen. She did not marry but was a whore and witch. She is mentioned in a Ch. Mapelet and the Ch. One, AZ[147], ‘Queen Cleopatra was vanquished by the Romans and they seized her country.’ In the Ch. Helek there is a reference to ‘Queen Cleopatra who asked R. Meir’ but it is not the same Cleopatra as 200 years separate them. She asked Herod to lay with her but he declined for she was a goya. Cleopatra became the queen in year ‘150; 557 of Babylonian Exile, and reigned for 22 years and there were no more kings of Egypt. The same year (150), a great city called Ankita was built 30 miles from Carthage in Africa.

Julius Caesar, the first monarch of Rome, reigned from year 191[148]; 542 of Babylonian Exile for four years and seven months. He established a monarchy in Rome and was assassinated. Rome remained without a ruler for three years. Then Octavian [Augustus] Caesar became the king[149] in August 151 [48 BC] for 56˝ years. He was a son of Julius Caesar’s sister. After the first 18 years, he reigned the entire world in peace for 38 years.

Herod the Galilean, son of Antipater the Idumean, reigned for 37 years and came to power in 161 when Antipater died of poison (he was a great warrior). He had five sons. The high priest was Malchion. Until then the office of high priest would pass from father to son, but from that time until the third year before the Destruction, the office was sold for money and there was a new high priest each year. In his 15th year of reign, King Herod built the exquisite Temple as well as houses in Jerusalem and elsewhere. In year 26, he killed Hyrcanus the High Priest, his master, who was a righteous man. He was assassinated as he returned from Babylon. Herod also killed his sister’s husband. And he killed the Synedrion. His sons were Archelaus, Antipas, Antipater, Lysinius and Philip. Virginius the philosopher, physician, astronomer (165) in Rome, and Tullius Miro.

Hyrcanus the high priest was killed by Herod in 186 (28, Year of Augustus). He was 80. All Hasmoneans were wiped out then. [Hyrcanus] lived in sorrow all his life, as after the death of his mother Alexandra. he reigned for three months; then his brother Aristobulus came and fought him. Then came Pompey, the Roman general, who restored the kingdom to Hyrcanus; he served for 40 years before he went to Babylon. After his death, the office of high priest was sold for money each year. Thus Daniel’s prophecy[150] was fulfiled: the Annointed [the high priest] would be cut down after 70, 70 and 60 years and justice would be destroyed: that is the Synedrion.

The last Sibyl (5170) of the prophetesses of the nations of the world. Titus Livy, the historian (183). Ovid, philosopher and poet (182).

Mariamne the Hasmonean, sister of Aristobulus the boy priest who was killed by Herod. She was Herod’s wife and of unsurpassed beauty. Her face shone and people said she was not a woman, but a heavenly body like the sun and moon. As Herod had killed all her family, she was very hostile to him. She was a person of great heart and soul and refused to lay with him. Her mother-in-law and sister-in-law told King Herod that she had sent a letter asking Rome to remove Herod and install her brother instead. Herod judged her in the Synedrion and she was killed.

The Eighth Era – This was the Nativity of That Man[151] and John the Baptist (5199). John was the son of Zechariah the Priest, his wife was barren and John was born six months before That Man. They have various theories; according to Isidore He was born in 5200, or 5210, or some say in 199. His mother Miriam gave birth when she was 14. Archelaus[152] son of Herod (204; 47 Year of Augustus) reigned for nine years. He and his brother Antiochus[153] fought wars and conquered lands. Archelaus’ brother Antipas[154] (213) took the sceptre from him. He reigned for 24 years and divided the land into four parts, Galilee for himself etc. He was cruel: he killed his sons, abolished the priesthood and transgressed the Law. He slaughtered John the Baptist, as he reproached him for marrying the wife of his brother Antipas[155]. After that he was taken to Rome and sent to Lyon, a city in France, where he and his wife, and daughter drowned when the bridge collapsed.

Tiberius[156] (214) reigned in Rome for 23 years. Valerius[157] (215) was a wise philosopher who worked for the Romans in Jerusalem for nine years In those days the high priesthood was sold for money; and he gave the priesthood to Caiaphas and he [Caiaphas] judged That Man. Pilate[158] (224) was in Jerusalem for four years. In 228 the Pharisees separated; they paid much attention to their clothes and meals. They were enemies of That Man. In 228 there were also the Sadducees, they were heretics who denied resurrection and angels; they held that a man’s soul died with his body. They were hypocrites pretending to be righteous[159], but they were heretics. There was another Pharisee sect called the Essenes who were extreme Pharisees.

The Duchy of Burgundy began (234).

Agrippa[160] son of Herod son of Aristobulus (237) reigned for seven years; he was a righteous man. He was previously in Rome with Tiberius the Caesar. Gaius Caesar [Caligula] (237) reigned for four years. Claudius Caesar (242) reigned for 13 years and eight months. Simeon Peter first Pope of Rome (243); he was the Pope for 25 years and seven months. Before that he was the Pope of Antioch. He was from Galilee; and Caesar executed him personally.

Simon the Great, the Samaritan, a mighty warrior and magician who could levitate. He wished to be considered God and that people will give him money. Thus ‘simony’ means ‘to sell one’s holiness for money.’ They say that Simon Peter prayed and Simon the Samaritan fell down and died. Herod, brother of Agrippa reigned (245) for three years. He passed the priesthood to his son for two years. Afterwards Agrippa[161] son of Agrippa (249) reigned for 21 years and was very wise and knowledgeable in Latin. He was the last king. There was the great dispute between the Sages and the Priests. Then there was Onias the High Priest; he was a righteous man, and afterwards came Mattathias the High Priest, who was the last. It appears from the book that he was father of Joseph b. Gorion[162], the compiler of the Sefer Yohassin[163].

Seneca the great sage (291) wrote many books. His disciple Nero the Caesar killed him. Then Lucano, brother of Seneca, wrote books. Nero the Caesar (255) reigned for 14 years and seven months. After Peter, Liginus[164] was the Pope (259) for 11 years. Galba, the Caesar in Rome (70) reigned for seven months; the same emperor reigned for three months, too. Vitellius Caesar, for three months.

Kinteiro the philosopher (278 [AD 79]) flourished in Spain. The same year, there was Joseph b. Gorion the priest, son of Mattathias the High Priest. Vespasian Caesar, (bees and wasps entered in his nose), (72 [AD 71]) reigned for six years. He besieged Jerusalem, while he was Nero’s general, and was proclaimed the emperor in Rome while still in Jerusalem. He left his son Titus to deal with Jerusalem, who destroyed it in 5274 (8th September 75, Nativity of That Man). According to tradition in Joseph b. Gorion, the destruction was on 9th Ab, on Sunday, 28th Ab[165] AM 3698 (21st August, year 9 of the Cycle – the leap year). Maybe the destruction was completed in 8, September 68 of Christians.

Jerusalem had already been conquered five times: (1) in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, (2) in the days of the Second Temple by Isibio, king of Egypt, (3) Antiochus, (4) Pompey and (5) Herod the Great. The city was built by Canaan but some say by Melchizedek. He built a tower and called it Suleiman. [Thus was it called] from the Canaanites until the days of King David, pbuh. David called it Jerusalem. ‘Jeru’ means ‘full of all good’. There were three walls, water reservoirs, moats between the walls and iron chains. The moats were 40,000 feet deep and 250[166] feet wide. The city remained in ruins until Hadrian. He repaired it and gave it to goyim, so the Jews would not enter, but the poor ones. When Titus took Jerusalem, many Romans died along with 600 000 Jews, as many as had left in the Exodus from Egypt.

The kings of Jerusalem after the Hasmoneans were: Aristobulus (one year), Alexander (27 years), his wife Alexandra after him (nine years), Hyrcanus (34 years), Herod (37 years), Archelaus (nine years), Tetrarch (24 years), Agrippa (eight years) and Herod brother of Agrippa (four years). The true high priests, who did not buy the office, until Pirapeo and Mattathias the last ones were as follows. From Aaron till Solomon’s completion of the temple, there were 12: Aaron, Eleazar, Phineas, Abishua, Bukki, Eli, Samuel (this is strange, for Samuel was a Levite, not a priest), after him Ahitub, Ahimelech, Abiathar, Zadok and Ahimaaz. Joseph b. Gorion counted 612 years from Aaron until the Temple was built. From the Temple <construction> until Nebuchadnezzar, there were 18 priests: the first was Zadok and last, Jehozadak, who was exiled to Babylon. That period lasted 466˝ years and 20 days. In their (Christians) opinion, there were 15 high priests from the seed of Aaron from the Exile until Antiochus; then came Ioakim for three years and then there was no high priest for seven years. Afterwards came Jonathan brother of Judas Maccabee for four years; he was trapped and killed. Then came his brother Simeon, afterwards, his son Hyrcanus for 31 years, his son Aristobulus for a year and then Alexander his brother. His mother appointed him the high priest; he served for 27 years throughout her lifetime. When she died, his brother Aristobulus removed him from office. Aristobulus was king and high priest for three years and three months. Afterwards Pompey took him to Rome, while the office of high priest returned to Hyrcanus for 40 years. Afterwards another king was anointed and the priesthood given to Hyrcanus son of Aristobulus, and he reigned for three years and three months. Afterwards Herod besieged him and sent him to Antioch near Tarblus [Tripoli] in Syria, near Palestine. They sent Antigonus to Antioch of the Romans and killed Antigonus. When Herod seized the kingdom, the Hasmoneans were no more and there were other high priests. From Herod till the Destruction of the Temple, there were 29 high priests in 187 years. The land of Israel was called Judea, after Judah, Israel and Benjamin. Titus son of Vespasian (5280 [AD81]) reigned for two years. He brought to Rome beautiful clothes and all the riches of Jerusalem – even the tablets of Law they say, and that is a total lie. Titus’ brother Domitian (283) reigned for 15 years After him, Tirba [Nerva] reigned for a year and four months. Emperor Trajan reigned (AM 299; 100 of Nativity of That Man) for 11˝ years. Pliny II the historian, nephew of Pliny the philosopher, wrote the book of animals, in year 112 of Incarnation. Hadrian the Evil, oppressor of Israel, son[167] of Trajan, reigned (301) for 21 years. He was clever in mischief. He rebuilt Jerusalem and destroyed it. He banned Jews from the city. He renamed the city ‘Adrian’[168] after his son Adrianus. He went to Alexandria, rebuilt and fortified it. In Inglaterra [England], he built the city of Tiburtina, with walls 80 miles long. He died at age of 60[169] at Baiae.

Christian history book tells the story of Ben Koziba the Jew who reigned over Israel in the days of Hadrian, AM 318 [AD 119]; when Hadrian reigned, 45 years after the Destruction). Eusebius the Historian writes that he was a mighty warrior, who caused damage and slaughtered Christians. He was strong and cruel to them in all lands. He fought them and destroyed their lands until Hadrian came and saved them. Ben Koziba went to Egypt and sacked two kingdoms, Sidoni and Tabienari. He came to Alexandria in Egypt and attacked it but Hadrian defeated him. Many people died then in Alexandria, while Ben Koziba went to Mesopotamia, i.e. Aram Nahoraim, and Palestine; he was there with the Jews and made great war against Hadrian. Hadrian then killed many Jews. It is in the books and he[170] keeps close to the words of our sages of blessed memory who said (in Gittin[171]) that ‘he killed many Jews in Alexandria’. He went to Palestine and destroyed Bethar. Here one sees the truth: the Destruction of Bethar by Emperor Hadrian was 52 years after the Destruction [of the Temple], not 73 years as Doroth Olam says. It is not mentioned that Koziba was killed, but the Sages of blessed memory mention it. Hadrian died in Year 65 of the Destruction.

Antonius Pius son-in-law of Hadrian reigned (139) for 22 years and three months. He was compassionate and good, thus he was called ‘Pius’, from ‘piada’, which means ‘merciful’. It seems he or his brother, who succeeded him, was Antoninus, friend of Rabbi. Ptolemy of Alexandria[172], the philosopher and great astronomer; in his opinion, he was a king. He added much to astronomy, he made Almagest, the lore of aspects, the four parts of law and five sayings. He lived for 88 years. That was year 5344[173]; Year 69 of the Destruction (but really Year 65). He said, whoever thinks there is no Ruler in the World considers himself the sovereign of the world. He said, whoever has not received advice and morals from anyone is unfit to argue his case. And he also said, whoever grows older should do more good deeds. Al Battani the great astronomer was 720 years later, and RaLBG[174] the astronomer came 1,200 years after Ptolemy. Galen (5349) the Roman physician compiled 150 books on medicine. Marc Anthony, the brother of Antonius Pius reigned (362) in Rome for 19 years and one month. He was wise and pious. These two brothers were contemporaries of Our Saintly Master.

Commodius reigned (381) for 13 years. I did not care to list seven emperors who followed him. Schism arose among Christians, meaning heresy (441). Philip reigned (45) for seven years; he was an Arab who became Christian. Gallus reigned (453) for two years, that were the years of Plague worldwide. The world was almost destroyed. Egypt suffered most. Diocletian the Emperor reigned (485 [AD 286]) for two years. He visited Jerusalem, returned to Rome and removed himself from office. He died in Rome of poisoning. The astronomers start the calendar with his date; I do not know why. Galerius reigned (505) for two[175] years with Constantine the Great. Afterwards Constantine the Great reigned[176] (5507; 78 of Nativity of that man) alone for 30 years. In Year 10 of his reign he became a Christian because, they say, Pope Sylvester healed him of leprosy.

Thus began Ninth Era. Afterwards Constantine’s mother Helena went to Jerusalem. Filled with great hatred of Jews, she was determined to kill them unless they gave her the tree[177] That Man was hanged on. Then they prayed and found the right one 300 years after [the Crucifixion]. They say they found three crosses, of which one bore the inscription ‘That Man’ in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. Because of that, the emperor abolished crucifixion in future. The Jew [who found the Cross] became a Christian; she [Helena] made him the bishop of Jerusalem but later he was killed and the cross was taken to Rome. Helena gave her son one of the nails of the cross, and he put it into the bridle of his horse to go to war. According to their version, she cast another nail into the sea. The whereabouts of the third nail are unknown.[178] Constantine extended the limits of Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople after himself. It has been called the Second Rome because of its greatness from that time and the days of Pope Sylvester until our days.

Constantine[179] II (538) … of Constantine reigned for 24˝ years. The third king was Julian the Apostate of Constantine (572 [180]) who reigned for two years and five months. Valentinus[181] reigned (566 [367]) for 11 years. In Year 2 of Valentinus, there was a worldwide seaquake[182] and entire lands sank into the depths. In Sicily and elsewhere, mountains collapsed and destroyed whole nations. The earthquake struck Constantinople as well and falling stones killed many people. The Temple of Israel was then in Jerusalem, Jews had built it at great expense four years earlier in the days of Julian the Apostate: the earthquake collapsed it and many Jews were killed. The next day fire burned all the Temple utensils, even those of iron. They say this panic caused 300 Jews to become Christians. Emperor Valentino was against Christians; he returned Jews to Jerusalem and ordered them to rebuild the Temple, he gave them permission and helped defray their expenses. He said there was no sacrifice but in Jerusalem. The Jews tried to rebuild an even more magnificent temple than the previous one.

Ambrose[183], bishop of Milan (5572), wrote many books and he brought Augustine[184] to Christianity. Moosis [Maurice?], a monk in Egypt (76) brought many Egyptians to Christianity. The sixth emperor of Constantinople[185] (77) reigned for four years. Augustine the Bishop[186] built [??] in 5582; he was 18 years old. And he wrote the book. Theodosius[187] the Elder from Spain reigned in Constantinople for 11 years in 87. In 89, Augustine repented and returned to Christianity when he was 30[188]; he was with Ambrose in Milan. In 5611 (412[189] of Christians), Rome was sacked and ruined by Alaric, fourth king of Goths, from the kingdom of Gothia near Hungary. In his fifth year of reign, he conquered Rome, burned it, and devastated Italy. First he sent his general to Florence and Lombardy, and the king of Lombardy fought him, and Paul, his general defeated the Goth general. When Alaric king of the Goths learned this, he went and sacked France; then he went to Rome, where he stayed until they ate the flesh of their sons, and he burned the city. He fought Constantine three times. Then Alaric went and captured France, and he came to Italy and died there. Then Goths came to Spain, conquered it and remained there.

Jerome[190], the translator of the Bible from the holy tongue into Latin (5628), studied the holy tongue in Jerusalem from a Jew at nights, as it was an offence for Jews to teach Hebrew to Gentiles. He lived 98 years; he was buried in Bethlehem and compiled many books.

In 5660, a demon[191] appeared on the island of Candia [Crete]; he was incarnated in a body of a man, and misled the Jews to walk to the Land [of Israel] by sea as by dry land; and many Jews converted to Christianity.

In 5646 (446 of Christians), Merlin the great philosopher and astronomer flourished in England. He was the son of a demon; his mother was a princess; she was monastic, and had never lain with a man, but had a vision in a dream of doing so[192]. The Gentile Sages said a woman could become pregnant without a man if a demon came into a woman’s dream in the image of man, and she felt he had lain with her and impregnated her. Then the demon would take the semen and implant it in the woman’s womb; thus the woman dreaming of laying with a man would become pregnant. Our Sages of blessed memory also said, a virgin could become pregnant in a bathtub without a man. The same is written in Ben Sirah. The demons know the great cycles and they do it at the right time; perhaps such was the case with the Sons of God and the Giants.[193] Merlin wrote many books and obscure prophesies, which Doksis the wise and Isidore later explained.

In AM 5650 (but really 4211, as there is a difference of 1,439 between our calendar and the Christian calendar because we count from the Creation, and the mnemonic is ET LOG [=1439, a measure of oil]), there was a great earthquake for four months in Constantinople. There was a boy of Israel, who said, ‘Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts [Sabaoth]’ and the earthquake ceased. So I think it is true that this verse helped, for we see that when there was the earthquake in the days of Uzziah; Isaiah spoke this verse[194]. Our sages of blessed memory hinted at it[195], why the world endures? Because we glorify the Lord[196], that’s why the world would not perish.

Messiag[n]os[197] the 12th emperor, (651) reigned for seven years. It is held that fishermen founded Venice at this time, and in astrology its sign is Pisces. Then Ragusa [Dubrovnik] was founded (in 656); it is a Christian town, but it pays tax to the Turks. Like Venice, it is a sovereign city and located in the Gulf of Venice [Adriatic]. Leo[198], the 13th emperor in Constantinople (657) reigned for 16 years. The 14th emperor[199] reigned (673) for 17 years. Anastius[200] the 15th emperor reigned (690) in the East for 36 years. Boicio[201] the philosopher arranged songs and melodies in 699. The 16th[202] emperor reigned (714) for eight years. Justinian the Great[203], the 17th emperor (724) reigned for 38 years. He was wise; he arranged the Codex of Law. Benito died n 728 (701 in the Christian chronicles; 502 of Christians). In 749, the Goths came to Milan and killed 30,000 men.

The Tenth Era

Justin[204] the boy emperor (773[205]) reigned for 11 years. At that time the great plague infested the entire world, especially suffered people of Liguria, they are Genovese. At night they heard voices during the plague and they were ignorant. The kingdom of Lombardy was founded (766). The 19th emperor Tiberius Constantine[206] reigned (770) for seven years. The second emperor[207] (777) reigned for 20 years. There was Pope Gregory[208] who composed the commentary of Job, a great book, in 781. In 791, the Christians said they found the garment made by the Mother of That Man for Her Son and it was hidden in a marble box near Jerusalem. In 792, great signs were seen in the skies of Greece and they said the progenitor of the faith, Muhammad had [appeared]. Great light shone in the skies of Constantinople and a four-legged boy was born. On the seashore people saw two fish in the form of men.

Muhammad[209] came in 794. [The Christians said] his father was an Arab nobleman, and his mother, a Jewess of the seed of Ishmael. When he was 28, he was angered by Christians. He was learned in all religions. The book he wrote was written with the help of three men. [The first was] Sergius Asano (or Ariano) the Christian of Rome. At first he preached the Christian faith in Egypt but later he converted. The others were a Jewish sage and John of Antioch. They say he lived 34 years and died in 632 of Christian calendar. But their calendar[210] begins ten years earlier, from the war.

Phocas[211] the 21st king (797) reigned for 13 years The 22nd emperor[212] (810) reigned for 27 years In 814 (615 of Christians), died Isidore, the bishop of Seville, called Isplinsi Baladin Sebilii[213]. He was a disciple of Pope Gregory. He wrote books on astronomy, theology, cosmography and history from Adam the first man until his days. He was the man who knew in astronomy what would happen in 900 years. He lived in the days of Muhammad and died 17 years before him [and in that time the Goth king of Spain forced the Jews of Spain to convert to Christianity, in the days of Isidore, as is written in the History of Popes]. The 23rd emperor[214] (837) reigned for two years. Constantine[215], the 24th Emperor (839) reigned for 27 years In 844 (or 834) the Ishmaelites [Moslems] came to Alexandria and conquered part of Africa, the Isle of Rhodes and the Isle of Colossus; they took 90 camels [of gold] and sent them to Alexandria. They also went and ruined many places in Sicily. Then the Ishmaelites killed 150,000 Christians. Afterwards they went to Spain, defeated the Goths there and ruined Spain. But I found that the Ishmaelites went to Spain in 672 AD [or 710)[216]. The 25th emperor[217] reigned for six months. Constantine, the 26th emperor[218] (868) reigned for 17 years.

In 873, there was a comet, lightning and floods unheard of in the world. And immediately the great plague came and devastated Pavia. The kingdom of Hungary began in 880. The 27th emperor[219] (885) reigned for 10 years. The 28th emperor[220] reigned (895) for three years. Tiberius[221] the 29th emperor reigned (898) for seven years. Then the 27th emperor returned[222] in 905 and reigned for six years. The Doges of Venice began in 905. The 30th emperor[223] of Constantinople reigned for a year (5909). Anastius[224] the 31st emperor reigned (911) for three years. The 32nd emperor[225] reigned (914) for a year. Leo[226] the 33rd emperor reigned (915) for 24 years. In 926 (or 909) there was a plague in Constantinople and 300,000 people perished. Then the Ishmaelites besieged Constantinople[227]. Then Marc Martel[228] of France killed 360,000 Ishmaelites but the remainder besieged Constantinople for three years. Then they lifted the siege due to frost and famine. Then the Ishmaelites went to Hungary. The same year, two comets were seen for 15 days in January, one before the sun and the other, after the sun. The 34th emperor Constantine[229] reigned (939) for 33 years.

The kingdom of Turkey began; they are Gog and Magog. Augustine wrote that Alexander [the Great] locked them up behind the mountains of the North. Afterwards they came to Cappadocia, between Palestine and Turkey. Their kingdom began in 956 (or 957). In year 72, the 35th emperor[230] reigned for five years. He had a very beautiful wife[231]. After his death she reigned for ten years with her minor son. When he was eight, he parted with his mother. The 36th emperor[232] reigned for ten years, five years with his mother and five alone (77). In year 77 (‘95 of Christians), the Christians said that a Jew in Syria had furiously pierced the image of That Man with a lance and they say much blood poured forth from the image. That is a lie. Paolo of Toriko - 95. Roland the Warrior[233] died in Gascony [France]; some say he died of thirst in year ‘95. The 37th emperor[234] (‘96) reigned for nine years.

The Eleventh Era began in AM 6000 (but really in AM 4561; 800 AD). Charlemagne in France. The 40th emperor[235] reigned for nine years (6020). In 6031 there was hail and great stones fell from the sky. One stone was 12 feet long and killed many men. In ‘32, Ishmaelites came from Spain and sacked Italian cities. They also sacked Palermo in Sicily[236]. The 41st emperor reigned (32) for 15 years.

In AD 858 there was an Englishwoman who studied philosophy in Athens. She came to Rome dressed as a man and became pope for two years and five months. She became pregnant from her housekeeper, gave birth in the market as she walked away from home and died. Her name was Joanna. Thus they have the custom of grasping the testicles of a newly-elected pope to be sure it is a man.[237]

In 6062, blood [and fire] poured from the sky in Brescia in Lombardy for three days and three nights. In ’63, Italy was attacked by six-winged locusts as had never been seen before. A great plague broke out and the river of Rome overflowed, demolishing the majority of Roman houses; thus people thought it was the [Great] Flood. The 43rd emperor[238] reigned (‘70) for 14 years. In ‘68, the Ishmaelites conquered Crete [Candia] and sacked all the coastal cities of Italy. Then the Christians united[239] and expelled them from Italy and Sicily, and killed many of them. ‘In 92, they said they saw Michael the Angel atop a mountain in Apulia[240]. Thus the Christians celebrate St. Michael on 29th September.

The 45th emperor reigned (102) for two years. In 103, the Ishmaelites from Africa crossed to Sicily and Apulia and conquered lands, taking rich trophies. Afterwards the Christians united and took trophies. In ‘131, a spring near Genoa spouted blood and it was a bad omen, for that year the Ishmaelites came to Genoa, Tuscany and Florence where they killed everybody and took their wives and sons into captivity by sea. Some Genoans who had fought Pisa heard of this, [came] to fight the Ishmaelites and saved their wives and sons from them. In ‘137, blood appeared on the sun and many people suddenly died in Venice. The 47th emperor reigned (140) for ten years in Constantinople.

The Twelfth Era saw the appearance of the first German emperors in ‘160 (or 165)[241]. It was first time there were French and Lombardian emperors alongside the emperor in Constantinople[242]. The 48th emperor of Constantinople[243] reigned for six years (168). The 49th emperor[244] reigned (175) with his brother. In 181 a comet appeared that looked like a star. It immediately brought famine and plague to Italy. There was an earthquake in Apulia. In 195 there was a comet, other great omens, an earthquake and houses collapsed in the cities. In 211 (1012 AD) blood appeared on the moon; there was an earthquake, fire from the sky, the sea overflowed and lands sank; there was also great famine and sudden plague. There was a spring in France that gushed blood, predicting this calamity. The same year the Turks and Ishmaelites came to Jerusalem and destroyed the tomb of That Man.[245] They reviled Him [or despoiled] greatly, until in AD 1049, the emperor of Constantinople[246] came and took it from the Ishmaelites and they rebuilt the House of Prayer for Christians church [with some changes].

The Duchy of Milan began in 222. In 237, there was Guido, who taught string instrumental music. In 255, Constantine the emperor reigned for 15 years; then the Ishmaelites conquered Constantinople[247] and the kingdom of Greece. In 259, a monster was born with two heads and four arms, twinned up to his navel. From his navel down it was one man. He ate, played and spoke normally. One face smiled while the other face wept. He ate with both mouths and all the food came into one place. Eventually one of them died and the other lived for three years before he died of the stink and heavy weight of the dead body and dead head. Our sages of blessed memory mention in Menachoth[248] that a two-headed child had also been born in their time; he was firstborn and had to pay the priest 10 shekels.

In 264 there was famine and plague in all the world. Al Battani[249], the great Arab physician translated the books of Galen, in 269 [AD 1069] Isaac the Jew[250], son of Miran [or Imiran] b. Solomon, the great physician, made medicines and potions against fever in 269.

In 281 (or 6289) two great cycles were completed. Each cycle lasted 532 years by combining 19-year cycles with 28-year cycles. Then all the Pisces, Charismas and days of the month start from the beginning. The cycle began in the days of Tiberius the Caesar and ended that year, that is 1,064 years. But I count 1,052 years from that year and until this year.

That year the people of Venice, Genoa and Apulia went to Jerusalem in 200 boats and captured it (281 [1081]). In 284 there were omens and miracles: roosters and other domestic fowl turned wild and escaped into the countryside. Many fish died in the sea and rivers. In Sicily, an earthquake struck, Syracuse perished with all its houses and a church collapsed killing all but two priests.

In 295 [1096], the French took Jerusalem[251] but also said they had taken it six years earlier. In 299 a Christian king reigned in Jerusalem; he conquered Ashkelon, Jaffa and Ramleh, and obtained much gold from them. R. Hiyya of Spain wrote (it was in his time) that in 298[252] they discovered in Antioch the lance that had wounded That Man. In 6300 (1101 AD), the Ishmaelites went to fight the Christians and killed many from the sea to Jerusalem. At the beginning of charisma in 6304, there was a star that shone like daylight, and 25 days later, at the end of charisma, on Thursday Della Seina [Mina], one morning two moons were visible: one in the East, the other in the West. Even in my days in Salamanca there was a lunar halo (similar to the solar rainbow). People say it occurs twice in every 19-year cycle. In 305, the Genoans captured Tribulis DiSuria[253], Caesarea, Gibil, then ruined them, took them from the Ishmaelites, killed many Ishmaelites and gave the cities to the Christian king of Jerusalem. They brought the precious emerald bowl of very high value to Genoa and it is still there. They also say they brought the ashes of John the Baptist, as his body and head were burned in Rome.

In 313, blood poured like rain in June. In 314, the Ishmaelites and Christians fought a big naval battle for Jaffa. The Christians seized Jaffa and gave it to the king of Jerusalem. They went to Tyre, which is the Crowned Tyre near Jerusalem and Sidon. Angry with the emperor of Constantinople, the Doge of Venice then seized and sacked Rhodes as well as Sio, Samos and Mytilene; then he seized and sacked Lemadon [or Lemazon] and gave to Venetians. In 317, a pig with human face and four-legged chicken were born. The winter was very cold, with famine and plague; animals and birds fought each other. There was an earthquake in Italy for 40 days and a city shifted its location. In 330, the Christian king Fulk of Jerusalem reigned for 11 years; he went to Persia and fought the Turks, killing 3,000 and capturing 3,000. Afterwards the king fell from his horse and died. In 334, it was so hot that all the trees dried up. In Italy, the earth broke apart and fire came out. The plague began immediately. In 339, the Mesopotamian city of Edessa (Jews call it Erek) was seized by the Turks who killed all the Christians. That is the city of Rages, that Tobias went to[254], as written in his book. In 340, the Christian king Baldwin of Jerusalem reigned for 24 years; he seized Ashkelon, built up Gaza, fought the Turks, killed 5,000 of them, and fought other nations up to Damascus. In 348, the German emperor authorized the Genoans to mint imperial coin. The same year, the Genoans went with the Duke of Barcelona to Almeria to fight the Turks and Ishmaelites there; he killed 20,000 Ishmaelites, captured 10,000 and sacked the city.

Ibn Sina[255] [Avicenna] Isbili, the great physician, his name was Abu Ali. He was the doctor of the king of Beitania. Another physician poisoned him out of envy but he realized it and killed the physician before he died. Ibn Sina wrote many books of divinity and five books of medicine (348). In the same year, Ibn Rushd [Averroes], the philosopher and commentator of Aristotle from Cordoba. He wrote a great respected book on astronomy, astronomers appreciate him very much and he wrote even more books on astronomy. Al-Zuhri[256], the great physician, came at the same time.

In 392, King Alfonso of Spain went to Jerusalem and died instantly when he returned home. His deserted son became king. And then his brother Fernando immediately became king. He went to the Ishmaelites and died. His son Alfonso reigned in his stead. In 357 [1157], the mountain folk in France accepted the new religion[257], to multiply and to lay with their neighbor’s wives; they have no law and they still exist. Then, the monk Joakim[258] wrote Foklis, an abbreviated book of vision of John Abargilista [the Evangelist].

In 365, the Christian king in Jerusalem reigned for 12 years. In 371, the Ishmaelites fought at Jerusalem and then ruled Egypt. In October 372, three images of the sun appeared in the west, then came three moons and an earthquake: many cities sank in Syria and Cilicia, near Palestine, killing many Ishmaelites. In 372, an earthquake hit Antioch, Tripoli of Syria and Damascus and houses collapsed. The Sicilian city of Catania collapsed and 20,000 died; the sea rose in Sicily and 5,000 died. In Italy there was hail the size of goose eggs.

In 377, a Christian king reigned in Jerusalem for six years; he was a leper and fought the Ishmaelites. In 383, the Ishmaelites seized Jerusalem for the last time from the Christians and exiled them with their wealth. At first it was in Christian hands for 89 years. It was conquered on 2nd October[259], 1187 and the Christians departed for Tyre, Alexandria, Antioch and even to Seville; the [Moslems] destroyed all the houses of idol worship [churches] and kanpans, meaning ‘kaskbilis that ring’ [belfries], but they did not destroy the Temple of Solomon.

The kingdom of Gifli [or Gofri], or Cabrum [Cyprus?] began in late 394.

The Thirteenth Era began in 401. An emperor was enthroned in France. In 402, the great king Tamerlane[260] founded the kingdom of Tartaria. In 408, the saints Francis[261] of Italy and Dominic of Spain, established monasteries. In 412, the African king came and attacked Toledo but could not take it, as all the Christian kings of Spain joined forces to defeat him. In 418, the son of the sultan of Egypt came to Jerusalem, besieged it and destroyed all the city, demolishing the houses of their folly [churches] but not the Temple of Solomon. The Christians asked him, and offered him great wealth and a tribute if he would spare the Tomb of That Man. In 427, there was an earthquake and the sea rose at Friga; more then 100,000 died. Then there was a great hailstorm in France that killed 5,000. In 451 [1250], there was Iskoto who wrote many books. There was Guido Bonto [Bonatti] who wrote books on the laws of astronomy[262]; he was very wise, like a prophet of laws. But in Spain there was a great sage, like a prophet in law by the name of Gaon Gil[263]; there was nobody like him, either before or after his time.

In 453, the Arabs came to Jerusalem, demolished the Tomb of That Man and debased it. In 458, the Genoans fought Venice for the cities of Tolomedia [Ptolemais, Acre] and Tyre in Palestine. The Genoans were in Tolomedia, the Venetians were in Tyre, and the Genoans seized Candia [Crete] from the Venetians. In 460, the Genoans seized the city of Sio. In 462, there was a comet for three months. The pope had died by the end of the three months. There were 222 popes from That Man until 1503 AD.

Albert Magno[264], the great sage in Paris, wrote many books (463). In 467, the Ishmaelites came from Africa to Spain and fought the Christians. Thomas, disciple of Albert Magno, is called Thomas Aquinas; he wrote many books on their religion and philosophy and quoted the the More by Rambam. In 472, a religious dispute arose betwee the Pope and the Greeks. The same year, Emperor Di Doko [Duke], enemy of king Don Juan of Castile, joined forces with king of France to march on Jerusalem. He also waged war on the king of Bohemia. In 480, the son of Carlos, king of Aragon, was caught in Apulia, as Sicily was his kingdom. In older days, Apulia in Italy was united with Sicily, but the sea separated them.

In 482, a boy was born with fur and claws like a bear. This boy was born of his cousin from her union with the pope. Because of this infamy, he erased all bear images on his family’s coat of arms. A fish was caught in the sea with face of a lion and a voice like that of a human. Then there was a great physician in Florence, who was comparable to Avokrat [Hippocrates] and used medicines as did Hippocrates[265]. In 484, Pisa won the battle of Milona [Meloria], an isle near Pisa in the war with Genoa, but afterwards Genoa was successful and 16,000 Pisans were killed[266]. In 489, Tripoli of Syria was conquered; it was in Christian hands; and Beirut was taken, too[267].

In 496, Genoa and Pisa were at war. On 30th November, 6500 (1301 AD), comets fell into the water with great noise, foretelling wars. In 501, Juan Iscoto[268] flourished; he wrote books. In 504, the Pope of Rome moved to Avignon[269], and there was a split for over 100 years. In 507, there began Maestrie[270] on Rhodes and Priory in the land of Christians from Rhodes. At first Rhodes belonged to the Turks and Ishmaelites. In 512, three moons appeared for three months, as did a comet in the north on the edge of Virgo. In November, King Philip of France died. Nicola of Illyria, a Franciscan monk, argued with the Jews; he expounded all 24 holy books [of the Bible] and their New Testament. They said he was a Jew at first. In 519, schism arose among the Christians; which is like heresy, and it led to the Papal Bull of 523.

In 553, began the Turk (I mean the Ottoman kings), Ibn Tomin, who was not of royal blood and befriended thieves and robbers. He took Turkey and Greece. In 542, the very wise philosopher Francisco Pitrata [Petrarca[271]] flourished in Florence. In 546, dust filled the air, land animals fell into the sea, the air was dusty and a great plague affected the entire world. In 547 (1348 AD), Germany exiled [or burned] all Jews for there was false testimony that they poisoned wells. That year the great plague[272] befell the world; I mentioned it already in Sefer Yohassin, and Guido,[273] who lived in those days, notes in his book, that 2/3 of the world’s people died for the conjunction of three superior planets (Saturn, Jupiter and Mars) in Aquarius that formed a shape of a man. So they troubled the Jews in vain. In 549, [AD 1350] a comet like a tree on fire appeared in the north in December, and there was a war between Genoa and Venice, and they took Gio (or Legio) from Venice. There was a pillar of fire in the sky and it descended with great thunder. In 555, there was an earthquake in Spain, especially in Seville and in Cordoba where houses collapsed and many died. In 559, there was the war of Genoa with Venice and Aragon and the emperor of Constantinople. In 563, Pisa became subject to Florence.

In the Fourteenth Era, Juan [Giovanni] Boccaccio[274] in Florence wrote books (574 [1375]). In 577, the papal seat moved from Avignon to Rome and there was a schism, like heresy, among the Christians. For 39 years, there was one pope in Avignon and another pope in Rome. Mytilene, some 50 miles from the city of Sio, fell to Genoa. They held it for 90 years until the Turks took it after capturing Constantinople. Paribiscenci, the Jew-hater from Valencia, preached against the Jews from 597 onwards. In 1455 AD, the pope beautified him as a saint. In 6599, the Jubilee of Rome, there was a great plague and 36,000 men died in Florence. In 6601 (1410 AD), Tamerlane king of Tartars crossed the Euphrates with 400,000 cavalry and 600,000 foot soldiers and conquered great kingdoms in Palestine. The Turks fought him and killed 200 000 men; they imprisoned Tamerlane and delivered him in the chains of gold. In his power, Tamerlane was similar to Hannibal.

In 6424 (6604), Venice conquered Verona in Lombardy. Then Pisa became subject to Venice. Ibn Ezra says that Pisa is of Aquarius. Venice took Padua in 605. In 6603, the Pope of Rome had to escape when the Romans revolted against him. Then another pope appeared who later left for Aragon. In 6612, a woman reigned in Naples; she married a Frenchman, reigned for 11 years, and casted her husband away. And then came King Alfonso of Aragon, for the kingdom was divided, and his son Don Fernando, king of Aragon also reigned there. This Don Alfonso was the brother of King Don Juan of Navarre and Aragon, father of Fernando, king of Castile; he is the one who expelled the Jews from Spain. In 621, the grandfather of the Duke of Milan, (which is now arrested by the king of France), drowned in the river. In 622, the last king of Nifli [Naples?] reigned for 34 years.

In 626, Venice took Brescia in Lombardy. In 627, the Tiber flooded and caused great damage to Rome, and in there was a plague in 474 of Christians. In 627 (1426), there was the heresy in Bohemia. The heretics said one may take any woman, and that the priests, and even bishops, should have no wealth at all. In 634, Genoa expelled King Alfonso of Aragon; he is the one who took Naples. He was sent to Naples, then Consulo di Basilia (meaning the Council) was in Germany. The pope went there. Then there was a schism, and the Duke of Savoy wanted to become pope. In 638, there was a dispute between Greeks and Catholics over whether the host should be made of unleavened or leavened bread: the Greeks argued for leavened bread and compromised on something between leavened and unleavened bread. There was also the dispute about the [Holy] Spirit: the Greeks said he emanated from the Father, not the Son, while the Catholics said he was from both. Blessed we are, Israel, as we have only One God, who created us.

In 1440, Fernando, king of Aragon, Sicily and Sardinia died. He reigned for 21 years; he was son of king Don Juan of Castile, who died after falling off his horse, and Fernando’s brother was king Don Enrique of Castile, who died prematurely. This king Fernando served as regent of Castile while the king’s son Enrique was a minor. When king of Aragon died without sons, Fernando was invited to reign in Aragon. In 1412 he began to reign over the Balearic Isles (Majorca and Minorca), Aragon and Lusitania. Now, that is untrue for Lusitania is Portugal. In August 29, 448 there was a solar eclipse for half a day, and there was war among England, France and Italy. For the next two years, there was great plague and earthquake. 1450 AD [was] the Christian Jubilee. In 1453 AD, and the mnemonic sign is ‘daughter of Edom’; on 29th May, the great Constantinople, the main city of Greece, was captured. It was besieged for 50 days and the Grand Turk Muhammad ibn Tomi [Othman] captured it; then the king of Persia reigned in Turkey for 35 years. In 1455 died king Alfonso, who captured Naples. He bequeathed Aragon and Sicily to his brother Don Juan, and to his son (by a mistress) he left Naples. His name was Pedro, after his grandfather. King Don Juan of Aragon reigned for 24 years and he escaped from Castile during the war for Olmedo[275]. On 22nd May 1445 AD, he fled to Aragon. He escaped together with the Castilian Almirante; he gave his daughter in marriage to the king, for the king was a widower, and she gave him son at noon on 10th March 1452 AD. This son was Fernando, who became king of Spain and Sicily, after his brother (by another woman) Carlos the Great died. In 454 died Don Juan, king of Castile, and his son Don Enrique reigned for 20 years.

The king of Persia, Mede and Armenia (r. 454) made great war against the Turk; he captured Negroponte [Euboea], and made peace with the Pope and with Venice. He began the war to prevent the Turk from fighting Christians; the Turk sent his son, they fought, the Persian king captured a city from the Turks and defeated the son of Turk. When the Turk heard of it, he was furious, and asked for help as they were of one faith, but [the Persian king] did not comply and he came with a great force. The Persian king had 350,000 riders in the mountains. The Turk established his camp in the vicinity, he had many ballistae which fired in salvos upon the Persians; the horses bolted and he killed the son of king of Persia and all his army: only 6,000 survived. Of the Turk’s forces, 40,000 survived. So the Turk won the war, earning great fame and respect. On 11th June 1455, the Turk captured Negroponte from Venice and took great vengeance on them. The same year, a woman of Brescia in Lombardy gave birth to a dog, while another in Pavia gave birth to a cat. Two hours before sunrise on 15th August that same year, there was a great earthquake with hailstones as big as ostrich eggs. On 24th August ‘71, a Sabbath, the king of Portugal captured Tangier and Arzila in the kingdom of Fez from the Ishmaelites. On 22nd January ‘72, there was a hairy-tailed comet full of fire in Sagittarius that moved north through all the signs of Zodiac within 80 days. Remember that Aristotle said that the minimum time for a comet is a week and the maximum, 80 days. Immediately afterwards, there was another comet in Aries, with its tail to the East. That year, there was drought, famine, plague and war. In ‘474, a monster was born in Verona with one head, two bodies, two sets of genitalia and four arms; two arms were strong and two were weak, and the bodies were attached at the navel. His father and mother promenaded him and displayed him for money, becoming very rich. In ‘75, there was false testimony against Jews in an Italian city[276] that they had killed a goy boy called Simon, in order to eat his blood with unleavened bread on the eve of Passover and they killed all the Jews; God shall avenge their blood. The same thing occurred in another city, and three Jews were burned in Venice. The same year, the Turk captured the city of Kafa in northern Turkey, in the great sea, from the Genoans. One year earlier, in ‘74, the Candians [Crete] had invited the Turk but they failed for the Venetians came and killed many of them. Granada is so called, they say, because it was the first place there was grana,[277] used for carmine painting; its previous name was Bitis. King of Persia, son of the strong king, became king of Parthians, Persia, Mede, Mesopotamia and Armenia in 1475. In July ‘78, there was a big solar eclipse and plague in Italy. In ‘79, the Turks besieged Rhodes for three months but could not capture it. In ‘480, the Turks captured L’Otorato in the kingdom of Naples. In ‘81, the Turkish king decided to go to Egypt but a physician poisoned him. He was 58 and he had become king at the age of 24. In 1482, they captured Alhama in the kingdom of Granada. That was the beginning of a ten-year war between Ishmael and Edom. On 18th August ‘487, Malaga was captured. On 1st January 1492, Granada was captured; by the end of July that year the Jews were expelled from Castile, Aragon, Sicily and Sardinia. The same year a man struck the neck of the king of Castile with a sword in Barcelona and the king nearly died. In ‘494, at four hours of night on 12th January 1494, there was a big earthquake in Spain and Africa. In ‘495 AD there was a plague[278] like those of Egypt, with rheumatic pains of hard, cold and evil moisture, and bodies were covered in buboes, meaning growths on the bodies and faces, that cover all the skin like black figs. Many people died of this disease. They say it came from Constantinople and is called ‘the French disease’. For ten years it spread among all nations except Israel. It starts in the genitalia. The Christians said, that it was like the illness in the days of Pope di Oshdi in 515 AD, in the days of Muhammad, when Jupiter and Saturn aligned in Scorpio, and there is the same alignment nowadays. In 1495, Mars was also in Scorpio, the sign of pudendum. In the days of the pope, that was in the days of Muhammad, there was a big earthquake. He healed a leper, they say, and forbade Christians to marry padrinos[279] and become relatives.

In ‘497, the Jews were expelled from Portugal and Navarre. Then a son of the king of Castile died in his 20th year of reign. He was married and died in Salamanca. He died and his father had no other male heir but daughters. In ’98, died the elder daughter of the king of Castile, wife of the Portuguese king. She died while giving birth. In ‘500, the Turk began the war against Venice and captured Lepanto. In ‘501, he captured Modon, a big port and fortified city, and killed everybody, perhaps 10,000 warriors; and captured Coron. Then the Portuguese came to Marsa Kabir MeWahran[280], but could not take it; many died and others returned home ashamed. The same year, two or three kings died in Egypt, as did many other men.

Then the French and Spanish kings captured Naples, Apulia and Calabria; and the king of Naples escaped to France; six or seven years earlier, the previous king of France had taken Naples, returned home and died. The last king also seized Milan, the capital of Lombardy, before he took Naples and shared it between France and Spain. In ‘503, a dispute arose between the emissaries of the two kings in Naples; the Spanish lord defeated the French one, then killed him and other Frenchmen and took the entire kingdom of Naples but Gaeta. As Gaeta was the only remaining city, he besieged it with great force. Thus the two kings fought in Salses near Perpignan, at the border between France and Spain. Thus many men have died at war and it is still going on. He captured Gaeta and the entire Neapolitan kingdom.

Hear ye all desirous of Salvation by our Lord! Be strong and become stronger! May the Messiah come and appear soon! In our time! Amen.

Thus are completed the Chronicles of all that happened in the old days, of miracles and signs of the good things the Blessed Lord will give us and He shall lead us from darkness into the light, and He shall give us our righteous Messiah and He shall deliver us soon. Amen. If such is His will, we shall become ever stronger, and the writer shall suffer no harm. Amen.


[1] This part of the book was the last to be composed, in 1504 or 1505. Filipowski named it ‘Part Six’.

[2] Num 16

[3] Deut 32:7 - 9

[4] Ps 144:8

[5] A Roman Emperor who befriended R Judah the Prince in the Talmud; historically unattested.

[6] Reference to Josippon.

[7] Venicia, sounds similar to Phoenicia

[8] Tartus or Tartous (pop. 160,000), a Syrian seaside 90 km from Homs, 251 km from Damascus.

[9] The Bible says they knew how to calculate time. RAZ infers the knowledge of astronomy.

[10] Gen 6:1

[11] Ez 40

[12] Other versions of his name: Gionitus, Jonitus, Jonithus, Jonitho, Jonithon and Yonton

[13] RAZ follows the lineage of Gen 10, using mainly Ch. VI of Antiquities of Josephus.

[14] Gen 10:2, Antiq.1:6:1. It is a reference to Iberians, the old name for Georgians. Thus here Sepharad is not Spain, but Trans-Caucasian area.

[15] Gen 10:2 Tiras are Russians, according to Josippon.

[16] Gen 10:3 but identified with Brittany in Josippon.

[17] Gen 10:4, sons of Javan. RAZ identifies Tarshish with Tarsus, as he follows Josippon.

[18] Gen 10:4, sons of Javan; Germans in Josippon.

[19] Ez 27:7

[20] These two spellings appear in various MSS, while the majority of Masoretes spell with a D, Samaritan, Septuagint and some Masoretes spell with a R.

[21] Gen 14:18

[22] Gen 10:25

[23] see Marcus Junianus Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus.

[24] A Homeric remark

[25] Gen 11:18

[26] reference to the three sisters who founded Prague, according to local legend.

[27] Gen 11:20

[28] Gen 11:22

[29] Gen 10:2

[30] Mesopotamia

[31] Tosefta Yevamoth Ch. 6, p 61b

[32] Genesis Rabah Ch. 25, 4

[33] Gen 25:4

[34] Gen 25:1

[35] Genesis Rabah, end Ch. 60

[36] Gen 25:4

[37] Usually, her daughter.

[38] Pleiades - Taygete, Elektra, Alkyone, Asterope, Kelaino, Maia, and Merope.

[39] Cf Aphrodite, spouse of Mars.

[40] Moy, ‘water’ in Egyptian Arabic; mayia, in Syrian and maa in Classic Arabic.

[41] Gen 16:13

[42] Ancient Bozrah or Greek Bostra, now Busra, ancient capital city of Edom 26 miles SSE of the Dead Sea near Petra.

[43] Gen 36:18

[44] Grinnus, the king of Thera (Santorini)?

[45] Num 16

[46] Trinacria, old name of Sicily

[47] Sicels came after Sicanians, so it was called Sicania and became Sicily after their defeat (Thucydides).

[48] Judg 19

[49] Jud 4:4

[50] Shevuath Haeduth, 4:2

[51] Minor, or alternatively, reference to Egypt (Misr in Arabic)

[52] Nicostrata or Carmenta, Daughter of King lonius

[53] BB 91a

[54] 1166 BC. The canonical Greek calculation was 1184/3 BC

[55] Bene Othman, or Osman, or Uthman – Osmanli Turks

[56] Poets?

[57] Site of Pyrrhus’ defeat in 276 BC. Benevento = good wind; maleventum = bad wind.

[58] Probably Brutus, grandson of Aeneas, as described by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his History of the Kings of Britain

[59] Ibid

[60] Probably agate, as this stone protects against scorpions and snakes, according to Pliny; while Ireland is known as the land without snakes.

[61] Iris quartz

[62] Samuel I, 13

[63] I Sam 22:19

[64] AZ 9a

[65] Her brother Pygmalion killed her husband Sychaeus

[66] Kings I, 5

[67] Eccl, SS and Prov.

[68] I Kings 6

[69] I Kings 12:22

[70] I Kings 13:4

[71] I Kings 13:20

[72] I Kings 13:24

[73] Makeda in Ethiopic or Bilqis (Belkis) in Arabic tradition

[74] Apparently, discounting the priests after Eli and before Zadok; otherwise, 12th.

[75] I Kings, 16

[76] I Kings 16:1

[77] II Kings 6

[78] II Chronicles 26

[79] Amulius Silvius

[80] Numitor

[81] Rhea Silvia, Livy 1.3

[82] Romulus and Remus

[83] Amulius Silvius

[84] Lupa is ‘She-wolf’ and ‘harlot’

[85] Pekahiah 2 Kings 15:22

[86] 16, in the Kings 2.

[87]  751 BC, standard dates 752 or 753.

[88] Ps 10:14

[89] 29 in the Kings, 2

[90] Of Hezekiah’s death

[91] Syracuse of Sicily

[92] II Kings 20

[93] Jesus

[94] Venetians?

[95] II Chron 36

[96] II Kings 25

[97] Tomyris or Tamyra, queen of the Massagetae, a Scythian nation.

[98] Son of Perseus and Andromeda

[99] Mizhania? Mesopotamia?

[100] Laranda of ancients; modern Karaman near Taurus Mts, Turkey

[101] The Sibylline prophecies were offered by the Cumaean sibyl to Tarquinius Superbus,the last of the seven kings of Rome.

[102] Or Balthazar

[103] Of Judith

[104] Bardiya

[105] Jerusalem

[106] Usually, 486-465 BC

[107] A dialogue by Plato

[108] 470-339 BC

[109] Judas acc to Josephus Flavius

[110] Esther 1:1

[111] Isocrates (436-338)

[112] Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC-43 BC)

[113] 360 BC

[114] faithless and wanton, in Jewish view.

[115] The native dynasty after the Persian rule; ended in 341 BC.

[116] Nectanebo (Nakhthorhebe): the last native pharaoh of Egypt, reigned 359/358-342/341; he was considered the true father of Alexander the Great.

[117] 384-322 BC

[118] 522-486 BC

[119] Xerxes I, the son of Cambyses

[120] He is referred as Ahasuerus 486-465

[121] 465-464 BC, reigned for seven months

[122] 465-425 BC

[123] Otherwise called Artaxerxes the Persian; reigned 45 days

[124] 423-404 BC

[125] 404-359 BC

[126] 359-338 BC

[127] 338-336 BC

[128] 336-330 BC

[129] 370-327 BC

[130] 222 BC, standard date 218 BC

[131] Onias II Son of Simeon the Righteous, (Antiq., XII, iv, 1-6) a man ‘of little soul and a great lover of money,’ refused to pay the tribute to Ptolemy Euergetes, but Joseph, a nephew of Onias, went to Ptolemy and purchased immunity from invasion.

[132] P 109

[133] Cartagena, Murcia; was called Cartago Nova

[134] Aristobulus of Paneas, 2c BC

[135] born 59/64 BC, died AD 17

[136] born 15–10 BC, died AD 45–50

[137] 134 BC, standard date 146 BC

[138] In 135 Hyrcanus' brother-in-law, Ptolemy, the governor of Jericho, assassinated Simon, Hyrcanus' father and two elder brothers.

[139] John Hyrcanus I (BC 175 – 104)

[140] He was the first of his house to adopt the title of king (basileus) in BC 104.

[141] 104-103 BC

[142] Rather, Jehonathan.

[143] Malarial fever caused by heavy drinking, according to Josephus Flavius.

[144] the Holy of the Holies

[145] July 12/13, 100? BC, - died March 15, 44 BC

[146] Titus Lucretius Carus (c. 99 - c. 55 BC)

[147] AZ, p 8

[148] Read 135

[149] Sept. 23, 63 BC - died Aug. 19, AD 14;

[150] Daniel 9

[151] Jesus

[152] Herod Archelaus, born 23 BC, reigned from 4 BC to 6 AD

[153] Should be: Antipas

[154] Herod Antipas I, born 21 BC - died AD 39, tetrarch of Galilee, reigned from 4 BC to AD 39, when he was banished to Gaul.

[155] Usually, Herod Philip, a half-brother of Antipas.

[156] 42 BC - AD 37, Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus, second Roman emperor

[157] Valerius Gratus, 15-26; the fourth Roman prefect of Judaea

[158] Pontius Pilate, 26-36

[159] ‘Sadducees’ and ‘righteous’ differ by one letter..

[160] Herod Agrippa I or Marcus Julius Agrippa born c. 10 BC - died AD 44, son of Aristobulus Antipater son of Herod the Great and Mariamne I.

[161] Herod Agrippa II born AD 27 - died c. 93

[162] A confusion of Josephus and Josippon.

[163] Should be Sefer Josippon.

[164] Linus A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79)

[165] Should be 3828

[166] Or 203

[167] Nephew.

[168] Aelia Capitolina, after his own name (Publius Aelius Hadrianus)

[169] died July 10, 138, Baiae [Baia], near Naples, Italy

[170] The historian

[171] 57b

[172] RAZ uses an Arabic word for ‘citizen’

[173] Numerically ‘destruction’.

[174] Rabbi Levi b. Gershon (1288–1344)

[175] 305 to 311, with Constantius Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great

[176] In 312 as the Emperor of the West, and from 324, as the only Emperor.

[177] The True Cross

[178] In Const. ed. it is said that she placed the third nail in the saddle

[179] Probably Constantius II, (Flavius Julius Constantius), son of Constantine the Great, Roman emperor from 337 to 361

[180] 371; usual dates 361-363

[181] Probably Valentian I (364-375)

[182] The great earthquake of year 365 that shook Crete and Libya.

[183] St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397; born probably 340, at Trier, Arles, or Lyons; died 4 April, 397.

[184] St Augustine of Hippo, 354 - 430

[185] Maybe Valens or Valentian II (375-378)

[186] At age of 18 in 372, Augustine turned to philosophy

[187] Theodosius I the Great reigned 379-395 Theodosius the Elder, his father, was executed in 375.

[188] Rather, 33; in September, 386. The Saint was born on 13 November, 354 in Tagaste, now Souk-Ahras, about 60 miles from Bona in Algiers.

[189] Rather, 410. The Sack was described by St Augustine in the City of God.

[190] St Jerome, born c. 347, Stridon, Dalmatia - died 419/420, Bethlehem, Palestine

[191] RAZ describes the story of a Cretan Jewish Messiah in about 430 AD. In that year a Rabbi named Moses appeared in Crete and announced that he was the same Moses who had led the Israelites through the Red Sea. He promised that in the following year he would lead Crete's Jews to the Holy land. On a specified day the Jews of Crete met together and threw themselves off the cliffs and into the sea believing that the sea will part for them. Many were drowned; still others were saved by fishermen assembled in nearby boats to watch. In the account of the historian Socrates (Socrates, ‘Historia Ecclesiastica,’ vii. 36), special mention is made of the fact that there was a general conversion to Christianity on the part of the survivors. What happened to R. Moses is not known.

[192] Merlin was the illegitimate son of a monastic Royal Princess of Dyfed. Merlin's father, it is said, was an angel who had visited the Royal nun and left her with child. Merlin's enemies claimed his father was really an incubus, an evil spirit that has intercourse with sleeping women.

[193] Gen 6

[194] Isha. 6

[195] Sotah 49

[196] Reference to Kidusha le-Sidra, the blessings of Lord at the conclusion of the Morning Service.

[197] Marcian (450-457)

[198] Leo I (457-474)

[199] Zeno (474-491)

[200] Anastasias (491-518)

[201] Boethius (c. AD 480-524)

[202] Justin I (518-527 A.D.)

[203] Justinian (527-565 A.D.)

[204] Justin II (565-578)

[205] 663 in the MS

[206] Tiberius II (I) Constantine (578-582)

[207] Maurice (582-602 A.D.)

[208] Gregory the Great, the pope from 590-604, wrote the Moralia in Job, commenting the book of Job in 35 books running to over half a million words.

[209] born c. 570, Mecca - died June 8, 632, Medina. The data provided by RAZ was widely spread in medieval Spain. Sergius is mentioned in Petrus Venerabilis work of 12th century.

[210] Anno Hegira, beginning at July 16, 622

[211] Phocas (602-610)

[212] Heraclius (610 - 641)

[213] Hispalensis, native of Seville. ‘baladi Ishbiliyya’ - a native of Seville, in the Arabic (Glick)

[214] Heraclonas (April/May - September 641) and Constantine III (February - April/May 641)

[215] Constans II (641 -668)

[216] 710 – in the MS. Actually Tariq Ibn Ziyad landed at Calpe (Gibraltar) in 711.

[217] Mezezius (668-669)

[218] Constantine IV (668 -685)

[219] Justinian II (685-695)

[220] Leontius (695-98)

[221] Tiberius III(II) (698-705)

[222] Justinian II (705-711)

[223] Philippicus Bardanes (or Vardanes) (711-713)

[224] Anastasias II ( 713-715)

[225] Theodosius III (715-717)

[226] Leo III (717-741)

[227] In 717.

[228] In 732 Charles Martel, the major-domo of Austrasia, defeated the Muslim force at Poitiers.

[229] Constantine V Copronymus (741-775)

[230] Leo IV (775-780)

[231] St Irene, who brought back icon veneration.

[232] Actually, St Irene reigned in Constantinople until 802; her son the emperor Constantine VI reigned (at least, formally) from 780 to 797, while St Irene was the actual and sometimes the official sovereign. So the correct reading would be ‘After his death she reigned for ten years with her minor son, that is from 780 to 790, while Constantine VI was a minor. In 790, Constantine came of age and was proclaimed the emperor. Eight years later in 797 he parted with his mother i.e. he died. She reigned additional five years alone.’

[233] Died in 778 at Roncesvalles, killed by Gascons and Basques.

[234] Nicephorus I (802-811)

[235] The MS refers more correctly to ‘emperors 38, 39, and 40’, thus covering the rule of Strauracius (811), Michael I (811-813), Leo V (813-820), while Michael II (820-829) is the ‘40th emperor’ of RAZ.

[236] In 831 the Saracens from Spain landed and took Palermo and completed their conquest of Sicily in 965.

[237] A medieval ‘urban legend’; modern criticism has at length succeeded in excluding from history. Perhaps the earliest writer to mention Pope Joan is Marianus Scotus, who in his chronicle inserts the following passage: ‘A. D. 854, Lotharii 14, Joanna, a woman, succeeded Leo, and reigned two years, five months, and four days.’ Sigebert de Gemblours (d. 5th Oct., z 112) inserts the same story in his valuable chronicle, copying from an interpolated passage in the work of Anastasias the Librarian. His words are, ‘It is reported that this John was a female, and that she conceived by one of her servants. The Pope, be-coming pregnant, gave birth to a child; wherefore some do not number her among the Pontiffs.’ Otto of Frisingen and Gottfried of Viterbo mention the Lady-Pope in their histories, and Martin Polonus gives details like AZ. William Ockham alludes to the story, and John Huss provides the lady with a name, and asserts that she was baptized Agnes. Others, however, insist upon her name having been Gilberta ; and Germans palm her off on England. The Protestant writers were not satisfied that the father of the unhappy baby should have been a servant: some made him a Cardinal, and others the devil himself.’ (Byron Reese) Between Leo IV., who died A.D. 855, and Benedict III., a woman, who concealed her sex, and assumed the name of John, it is said, opened her way to the pontifical throne by her learning and genius, and governed the church for a time. She is commonly called the Papess Joanna. During the five subsequent centuries the witnesses to this extraordinary event are without number, nor did any one, prior to the Reformation by Luther, regard the thing as either incredible, or disgraceful to the church. (Mosheim)

[238] Basil I (867-886)

[239] Coalition of Byzantine-Frank-Lombard and Slavs besieged and eventually took Bari from the Arabs.

[240] Though St Michael’s Day, or Michaelmas is indeed on September 29th, the apparition of St Michael on Mount Gargano in Apulia, Italy, is honoured by a memorial feast in the whole Western Church on May 8.

[241] On February 2, 962, the pope crowned Otto as the emperor.

[242] A dubious claim, unless one notes as the contemporaries did that Charlemagne was proclaimed Emperor of the West when there was no Emperor, but Empress Irene on the throne of Constantinople.

[243] John I Tzimiskes (969-976)

[244] Basil II Bulgar-slayer, (976-1025) with his younger brother Constantine

[245] the Egyptian caliph al-Hakim destroyed the Holy Sepulchre in 1009.

[246] The Church was restored the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachus in 1048, by Caliph’s permission, as Jerusalem was not conquered.

[247] The Turks took bigger part of Anatolia, but did not conquer Constantinople.

[248] Menachoth 37

[249] 858-929, Ibn Sinan al-Battani, Latin Albatenius, Albategnus, or Albategni.

[250] Isaac Judaeus? born 832/855, Egypt - died 932/955, Al-Qayrawan, Abu Yakub Ishaq Ibn Suleiman al-Israili, also called Isaac Israeli, or Isaac The Elder

[251] In 1099.

[252] Correct date.

[253] Tripoli (now in Lebanon)

[254] ‘Rages, a city of the Medes’,- Book of Tobias 1: 16

[255] 980 - died 1037, Ibn Sina, described as ‘Sevilian’ for his Latin translator was John of Seville. Apparently RAZ’s contemporaries believed Ibn Sina was from Seville. When medieval people read translations of Greek or Arabic texts, they often didn't know whether the authors were living, recent, or ancient, or where they lived and wrote. (Glick)

[256] Probably Ibn Zuhr (Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr; born: Seville, 1091.died: 1162, rather than al-Zuhri the Geographer (fl. 1130s–40s)

[257] Cathars?

[258] Joachim of Fiore, Italian: Gioacchino Da Fiore, or Folkis (1145-1202) a pre-Cathar theologian.

[259] 1187 AD

[260] Timur, 1336 - Feb. 19, 1405; ‘Timur the Lame’, English Tamerlane, or Tamburlaine

[261] born 1181/82, Assisi - died October 3, 1226, Assisi

[262] Liber Astronomicus

[263] Raymond Lull? (born 1235 Majorca – 1315)

[264] St Albert Magnus, or the Great, 1200-1280

[265] Gentile da Foligno?

[266] The naval battle at Meloria on 6 August 1284 ended with Genoese victory over Pisa.

[267] By Mamluks in 1289

[268] Perhaps John of Eschuid or Eschenden, Escynden died 1378; wrote on the Black Death, explained it by the conjunction.

[269] Popes resided in Avignon in 1309 to 1376 (and even until 1417 as anti-popes).

[270] 1309

[271] Francesco Petrarca; 1304 - 1374.

[272] Black Death: Sicily (1347); North Africa, mainland Italy, Spain, England, and France (1348); Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, and the Low Countries (1349); and Scandinavia and the Baltic lands (1350). There were recurrences of the plague in 1361–63, 1369–71, 1374–75, 1390, and 1400

[273] Gui de Chauliac?

[274] born 1313, Paris - died Dec. 21, 1375 Tuscany

[275] Battle of Olmedo, 1445

[276] 1475, Trento

[277] Carmine dye

[278] Syphilis made its appearance in Naples in 1495 being brought there by Columbus sailors.

[279] Padrino – Godfather; refers to prohibition of godfather to marry his goddaughter. This may mean a
Christian who is the client of a Roman cannot marry into his patron's family (Glick)

[280] Mers el-Kébir of Oran


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